Expressing the Future in Time Clauses

In this episode from Perfect English with Danny, the focus in on grammar, and you will learn how to express the future in time clauses.

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Episode Transcript

0:05
Welcome to a new episode from perfect English with Danny. Today it’s all about grammar, and we will talk about how to express the future in time clauses. Now before we start, let me remind you that I left you a link in the description of this episode that can take you to Patreon where you can become a patron for this podcast. If you really like the podcast, please support it on Patreon. Now, just to note that I have done 79 episodes so far with no support whatsoever, and I will keep doing that. But a little support goes a long way to continue this podcast and this mission with your help and your support. And now let’s get cracking and talk about how we can express the future in time closes. Now let me start with an example. Bob will come soon when Bob comes, we will see him. Now I want to focus a little bit on what I said in this example. Now I started with Bob will come soon. And we already know that we can use will or be going TO to express the future, among other ways, of course, but for now, let’s just focus on these two here it is very easy. It’s obvious, we said Bob will come soon, and we’ll hear shows that we’re talking about the future, but then I moved to the second part or to the second sentence in this example, when Bob comes, we will see him out here. I said, When Bob comes, I did not say when Bob will come or when Bob is going to come. I simply use the present simple when Bob comes, we will see him but if you read the whole thing again, Bob will come soon. So Bob is still not here. It’s gonna happen in the future when Bob comes. That’s all So in the future, we will see him obviously that is in the future as well. So what do we make out of this? Do we use the present simple with when, or with time clauses to talk about the future or to express the future? Well, if you guess that you’re right, and now let’s deconstruct the sentence a little bit, just chop it up to pieces. First of all, we said time closes, but maybe right now you’re wondering what is at time close anyway, you’re talking about express the future in time closes, but who knows what a time close is? Well, first, let’s see what a close is because we have many types of clauses in English. Of course, here what we care about is a time close. But a close in English is different from a sentence. When we say a sentence or a statement, we’re talking about, at least a subject and a verb, and most of the time with some compliment to the sentence, but the meaning is full When he say Bob will come soon we have a period after that, because the meaning is complete. You might want to ask questions about that when will Bob come, etc. But when I simply say Bob will come soon we have Bob as the subject will come as the verb and soon is simply an adverb. But we have the main elements of a sentence, the subject and the verb, and the meaning is complete, the meaning is full, we can put a period because the meaning is full. But let’s take a look at the second thing I said, When Bob comes. Now if you look at this part of the second sentence, when Bob comes, do we have a subject and a verb here? Well, obviously we do. We still have Bob as the subject and we have comes as the verb. So can we call this a sentence on its own? Well, the only thing that’s missing and that’s why we can’t call it A sentence or a full statement is the meaning itself. Now when you say when Bob comes, do you think you can stop there? Can you put a period and call the sentence complete? Obviously, we can’t. When Bob comes, if you stop there, people will be like, well, what will happen when he comes? What do you mean? Where’s the rest of the sentence? So that is a close, a close is a subject and a verb at least, but the meaning is not complete, we have to finish the sentence by saying in this example, we will see him when Bob comes, we will see him so that is the

4:38
close. Where is the time close in all that? Well, the time close comes with the words that you use. In this case we used when Bob comes or when Bob comes, that is a time close because of the word we use here, which is when and of course this is not the only word we can use to make a close time. Close. But this is obviously one of them and to be honest, the most common so again, a sentence is at least a subject and a verb with a complete meaning like Bob will come soon. A close is a subject and a verb at least with a word so that we know if it is a time close or any other type of closes that we will learn about in the future, but the meaning is not complete, you have to complete the sentence with what we call a main clause. In this case it is we will see him but I’m not going to be concerned about the main clothes except to talk about the different tenses we use in the time close and in the main close. So if you look again, we already said that we used comms which is present simple with a time close and you might have guessed that we don’t use will or be going with time closes. We use them with the main clothes at the time clothes we use present simple with the main clothes we use future expressions. Like well or be going but Is that all? Do you know everything about time closes now can we say goodbye? Not yet. The first thing we need to know what about the other words we can use to make time closes is it only when we already said it’s not only when so what other words do we use to make time closes? Well we already learned about when but we can use other words that are obviously related to time these words are before after, as soon as until and while now before and after our self explanatory because obviously one is before one is after. As soon as is very much like when or after. But it is a little bit different in its meaning, as soon as means immediately after. For example, if you say after I get home tonight, I will take a shower. Well maybe you will get home first. You might dress for a while. Maybe watch some TV, who knows. And then you might get into the shower or maybe not. But that’s not clear. We know that it is after we don’t know if it is going to be immediately after. If you want to stress this idea you use as soon as if you say, as soon as I get home tonight, I will take a shower. That means I’m going straight from the door to the bathroom, and I’m going to take a shower. And we have the word until if something happens until a particular time, it happens during the period before that time and stops at that time. It doesn’t continue after. So that is the meaning of until. And we have while and while usually has the meaning of two things happening at the same time. If something happens while something else is happening, the two things are happening at the same time. So these are the words we can use to create time clauses. Remember, these words are not enough on their own. These words need at least a subject and a verb. But because we use these words with them, the meaning is not complete. It is not enough it is not understood until we finish the sentence with a main clause like we did in our first example, quick examples. If you just say, before I arrive and stop, what does that mean? Okay, we have AI, which is a subject, arrive as a verb, but what do you want to say? You have to finish it you have to complete if you say as soon as I see him and you stop, there’s no meaning the meaning is not complete. So you see, this is a close when because we use one of these words these are time closes. And the second thing that I need to remind you with bear with me, I said that maybe a million times but because it is one of the easiest mistakes and the most common mistakes that people make when they use time closes. That is when they use will or be going to with the time close please don’t because

9:06
we don’t use will or be going to with the time close. We use it with the main clause. Now let’s see what we talked about in action with a couple of more examples. Linda is going to leave soon. Well, that is a false statement. We know that she’s going to leave soon. But now comes the time close before she leaves. She is going to finish her work. So before she leaves, that is our time close. She is going to finish her work we use be going to with the main close here, but both she leaves and she’s going to finish happen in the future. The meaning is future. Let’s take a look at another example. I will get home at 530 Well, that is our full statement that helps us understand what’s coming next. After I get home. I will eat dinner after I get home. That is a Time close we use present simple with it, but the meaning is future. If I stop here, it’s meaningless. What do you mean? After I get home? What are you going to do? I will eat dinner, here comes our main clothes, I will eat dinner and in the main clothes we used will here because it is future. Another example the taxi will arrive soon. As soon as it arrives, we’ll be able to leave for the airport. So as soon as it arrives, again, Present Simple. The meaning is future. That’s our time close alone, it means nothing. But when we say we’ll be able to leave for the airport. Now the meaning is complete with the rest of it. And our final example, there are going to come soon. I’ll wait here until they come. Now here as you noticed, we use the will with the first part of the sentence, but does it really matter? I never said that we use will with the first part or the second part of The sentence, I said that we don’t use well with the time close. Now if the time clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, you don’t use it there. If the time close comes at the end of the sentence, you don’t use will or be going to with it. Wherever it is, at the beginning of the sentence, or in the second part of the sentence, it doesn’t matter. And that brings us to another idea. Do we always have to start our sentence with the time close? Or can we put the time close as the second part of the sentence? Obviously, we can. Well, let’s get back to our first example. We said when Bob comes, we will see him. Well, can we say it the other way around? Let’s see, we will see Bob, when he comes. How is that different? It sounds good. It is good. It is correct. We can use them both ways. We can start with a time close or we can finish with a time close. We can put it in the second part of the sentence. And how about the other examples we say before she leaves, she’s going to finish her work. Well, we can simply say, she’s going to finish her work before she leaves. And that is correct. The third example, after I get home, I will eat dinner. Did you guess how you can change it? Obviously, I will eat dinner after I get home and it’s okay. As soon as it arrives, we’ll be able to leave for the airport. We’re talking about the taxi here. So can we say we’ll be able to leave for the airport as soon as the taxi arrives? Well, of course we can. How about the last example? I’ll wait here until they come. Can we say until they come? I’ll wait here. Well, we can although I have to say until usually comes as the second part of the sentence. Not the first part. But I’m not saying that you can’t use it at the beginning of the sentence you can but that gives it a little bit of a poetic sense or a dramatic sense not until He comes out wait here looks like a line that came from a movie or a play or something. But grammatically it’s correct, of course. Now, one thing you need to note that if you put the time close at the beginning of the sentence, you need to put a comma after the time close. So for the first one, we said, When Bob comes, we will see him. Now if you use that if you put the time clause at the beginning of the sentence, you need to separate the time clause from the main clause using a comma. When Bob comes comma, we will see him and this comma is not garnish. It’s not decoration. It’s grammar.

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You need to put it there. I know you might take punctuation, but trust me punctuation makes life a lot easier for readers. When you speak. It doesn’t make that much of a difference. But when you write it makes a world of difference for people who are reading it makes it so clear they can read exactly the way you want them to read. And obviously, they can understand what you’re talking about. So again, if you start with the time close, remember to separate the time close with a comma, put a comma right after the time close. But if you put the time close in the second part of the sentence, there is no need for a comma. Actually, it’s not there’s no need, you mustn’t put a comma, if you put the time close in the second part of the sentence. Well, that will be most of what I want to say about expressing the future in time close, I still have a couple of things that I must add to what we said. And that is the use of the present progressive and the present perfect with the time closes. Because it is possible, I’m going to say it is like 90% of the time. So even 95% of the times when you express the future in time closes. The tense you use with the time close is the present simple, that’s 90 to 95% of the times, but sometimes for specific meanings especially If you want to emphasize the meaning you can use the present progressive in a time close. For example, while I’m traveling in Europe next year, I’m going to save money by staying in youth hostels. So here instead of saying while I travel, the usual thing Present Simple. I said while I’m traveling in Europe next year, I’m going to save money by staying in youth hostels. So the rest of the sentence is just the same, I’m going to I will etc. But here I use the present progressive with the time close. And it is specially used with wild because remember, wild has this meaning that two things are happening at the same time. And it has that continuous meaning progressive meaning it adds this progressive meaning to the sentence you’re using. So in this case, we can use the present progressive to express an activity that will be in progress in the Future like the example while I’m traveling in Europe next year, it is not going to be a one time action. It’s not saying when I break something or when I get home or when I wake up no I’m talking about an activity that will be continuous that will be in progress in the future. In this case if you want to emphasize this or if you want to talk specifically about this, you can use the present progressive most of the time we use it with while How about the present perfect let’s take a look at this example. I will go to bed after I finished my work. Well do you think we can say I will go to bed after I have finished my work? Or the first one I finished my work that’s present simple, but the second one I have finished my work do you think we can do that? Obviously we can. And to be honest, the difference in meaning is not that big. When you say I will go to bed after I finished my work or I will go to bed after I have finished my work is not much of a difference. After all, you will finish your work first and then you will go to bed. That’s what you want to say. But you can use the present perfect in the time close if you want to emphasize the completion of the act before the other act occurs in the future. For me, the first sentence was just fine. I’m going to finish my work first, and then I will go to bed I will go to bed after I finished my work. It’s clear enough, but if you want to emphasize that the action will be completed, I’m emphasizing the completion of the act before the other act which is going to bed or occurs in the future, you can use the present perfect if you like. That being said, You should now know everything about using or expressing the future in time clauses. I hope you found that useful, and I will meet you again with other grammar episodes in the coming weeks. Before I leave, let me remind you again that I left the link for you Especially the ones who would like to support this podcast, you can become a patron on Patreon and support this podcast and make it even stronger and there are a few perks as well you can enjoy if you join one of the three tiers I put on Patreon. This is your host Danny saying thank you very much for listening to another episode from perfect English with Danny. I’ll see you next time.

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