Literature | The Iliad

Episode Description

In this episode, we will talk in detail about The Iliad by Homer as part of our literature series from English Plus Podcast. We will talk about the main characters, themes, and plot summary of one of the most spectacular and remembered epics of all time.

Episode Audio

Episode Transcript

Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.

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[00:01:03] Continue,

[00:01:07] welcome to a new episode from English plus podcast. In our new literature episodes, we will talk about immoral books, books that stood the test of time, and that are so influential that many other writers, even until today are still influenced by these books. And many of these books are transformed into great movies.

[00:01:32] But we will be talking about the books themselves. We will be talking about the main plot characters, themes, and other important things relating to those books. The first two books we will discuss in our literature episodes are most commonly believed to be the greatest works of literature in the history of the Western world.

[00:01:54] These books are the Iliad and the Odyssey. And they were written by Greek poet, Homer, sometime around the eighth century, BC. There’s almost no way to assess the enormous impact these two works have had on generations of writers, scholars, historians, philosophers, sculptors, painters, filmmakers, and of course readers who for over 25 centuries have found inspirations in the exploits of its heroes and in Homer’s observations about fate individuality and the value and purpose of human life.

[00:02:31] Through all these years, they’ve been the standards by which poets of every language have measured themselves. They’ll yet a story of the Trojan war is our focus. In this episode. In the next episode, we will talk about the Odyssey, which depicts the later adventures of a hero of that war. The yet is an Epic poem that was once told orally and sung by traveling poets or minstrels.

[00:02:58] And was later written down by Homer epics are distinct from other people three for a number of reasons. They focus on a hero who is larger than life. Usually strongly bigger, braver, or more intelligent than other men. The hero performs some dangerous feet that saves his nation or his tribe. The setting is vast and grand and often extends into the supernatural.

[00:03:23] The action encompasses deeds of Valor. The hero must overcome tremendous odds and obstacles and the language and style of the poem is grand and elaborate to match the story. This language remained intact, even when poets like Homer transferred the poems from an oral to a written format. Scholars were able to determine the date of Homer’s writing by tracing the history of oral epics and of written language.

[00:03:51] They knew that Epic poems were originally recited from memory, and they also knew that the ability to compose and recite poems of such length was one that existed only in preliterate society. So they concluded that the Iliad was recorded soon after writing was introduced in degrees. From studies of the earliest examples of Greek writing found inscribed on bronze and stone, they could set this date at about seven 50 BC, either Homer himself put the story down on paper or more likely he dictated it to a scribe.

[00:04:28] If this happened in seven 50 BC, then he was writing or events that took place 500 years earlier. For the date of the Trojan war is generally believed to be around 1250 BC. This means that the Elliot provides us with information on two important ages of history, the Trojan war itself, and the period of Homeric Greece, 500 years later to historians and archeologists Homer’s work offers priceless information about life in the bronze age.

[00:05:00] Including burial customs, tribal organization, class distinctions and warfare. Homer provides us with the first real glimpse into early Greek philosophy, religious life and social structure, which we’re already in an advanced stage of development. When he wrote the time he is writing off during the Trojan war is referred to as the Mycenaean age.

[00:05:24] And it was the first, truly Greek word. He’s the only connecting link between that age and the dark centuries from 1100 to 800 BC of which we have little information during those times, the Greeks were overrun by the Dorians or rather barbaric  that managed to decimate Greek culture and destroy all efforts at early writing.

[00:05:49] Homer appeared at the end of that dark time, when the culture was re-emerging along with written language, his destiny was to write of the early Greek ancestors that proceeded the dark times. And as such, he became an interpreter of the Greeks for the Greeks and for modern historians as well. The Elliot and the Odyssey are each about 350 pages long.

[00:06:13] And it’s remarkable to think that at one time, poets were able to memorize this much material and related to their audiences yet. That’s exactly what they did. For one thing in societies where there is no writing, people’s memories are superior to those of people living in literate societies, even today, in some parts of Eastern Europe, there are poets who can recite from memory forms of equal length to the ill yet.

[00:06:41] But the Greek poets also had certain techniques for jogging their memories. For one thing, an Epic poem consists of lines, which are the same in meter. And there’s certainly rhythm to each line that helps the poetry. Remember his words, the poet would also create certain phrases and lines to express a thought that was repeated.

[00:07:01] Often these phrases were worked into a formula. The phrases and formulas were passed down from poet to poet until over the years, it was possible to compose an Epic of great length and complexity. In the case of the Iliad, it’s believed that some of the phrases date all the way back to the Trojan war itself and were passed down from generation to generation.

[00:07:26] That means parts of this remarkable poem are over 3000 years old. As the years passed more and more of these phrases were retained in the collective memory of the minstrels, thus increasing the store of formulas. By the time the Epic reached Homer, it was fully developed and ready to be recorded. This opportunity was one that no person before Homer could have possibly had.

[00:07:53] He lived at a time when the Phoenician traders brought with them an alphabet that was being adapted into the Greek language and made writing possible as the use of writing spread throughout Greece. So did Homer’s poems, every child who was taught to read was taught Homer, including Alexander, the great who memorized all the passages of the Iliad that referred to his favorite hero.

[00:08:18] Achilles. Greeks prided themselves on being able to recite long passages of the Iliad and the Odyssey Greek authors quoted Homer the way scholars today, quote, the Bible or Shakespeare. There were of course no printing machines at Homer’s day. So every copy of his poems had to be written separately by scribes on piracy, the piracy decomposed after a period of time.

[00:08:44] So new copies were constantly being made. Since scribes were inevitably bound to make mistakes. And because of the lengthy copies there, or many versions of Homer’s workspaces circulated, finally, in the third century, BC, a group of scholars gathered in Alexandria and examined copies of Homer’s works from these copies.

[00:09:07] They produced a standard text. Then when parchment was developed, the works were transferred to this more durable substance. They were copied and recopied throughout the middle ages. Homer’s influence, then reach to the classical age into the Roman empire, into the Renaissance and on, into the modern era, he was a particular favorite of the English romantics who signed Homer at type of noble Savage they’d idealized.

[00:09:35] He was also popular on the continent. The German writer, GOTA taught himself to read Homer in Greek when he was only 21 throughout all these ages and lands Homer’s critical reputation remained strong and he was always admired and emulated. Some scholars believe that Homer didn’t really write his epics or at least that he didn’t write them alone.

[00:09:58] They believe that the poems were written jointly by a group of writers who use the name Homer as their collective pseudonym, or they believe Homer was a person, but that he had help in writing his poems. Some believe he wrote the Elliot, but not the Odyssey and others believe the opposite. Still others believe he collected a lot of sagas, but did no writing of his own, these issues of authorship have become known in literature as the Homeric question.

[00:10:27] The great majority of scholars agree. However, that Homer was real. He was a poet who knew the Iliad and the Odyssey by heart and told it orally. And at one point he wrote it or had it written down by a scribe. In addition, most scholars believe that Homer wrote the Iliad when he was a young man and wrote the Odyssey when he was in middle age, the poem recounts only one short period of the Trojan war.

[00:10:54] The war lasted 10 years. And this is the story of the last of those years. There was a lot of legend or history that proceeds the story. And a lot that follows it, that also involves the main characters. The ancient Greek audience would have been familiar with these events, but we of course need an update.

[00:11:16] The most important event that’s happened before the poem begins is that Paris, a young Trojan has run off with Helen, the wife of miscellaneous. Who is a Greek Paris was a guest in middle East, his house when he fell in love with Helen, who was said to be the most beautiful woman of her time. And so he simply whisked away to his native city.

[00:11:39] Troy, the reason that fate led Paris to Helen is also important as it affects later events in the poem. It seems that one day the goddesses Athena Hara and Aphrodite asked Barris, which of them he found most beautiful. Tina said that if he found her beautiful, she would reward him with wisdom and military success.

[00:12:02] Hara said that if he found her most beautiful, she would reward him with wealth and power. And Aphrodite said that if she was the fairest of all, she would reward him with love and the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris chose Aphrodite as a result, he was awarded with Helen and her love. But unfortunately, as another result he had for ever made enemies of the slided, Athena and Hara, Oh, Val to destroy both him and true.

[00:12:35] This is of critical importance to the story of the Elliot, because throughout the battles of the Trojan war Athena and the hero will do all they can to Swart Paris’s success while Aphrodite will try to help him. Mentally is Helen’s husband called all his generals to go with him, to conquer Troy and bring back Helen.

[00:12:55] They reach Troy and surround the city placing Achilles their best warrior at one end and the famous Ajax at the other. For nine years, they tried to penetrate the Trojan wall, unsuccessfully. This is the background necessary to understand the story of the Elliot. The story itself revolves around the hero.

[00:13:15] Achilles the mightiest of the Greek warriors, his wrath and his pride are central themes in the Epic and lead to tragic results. Achilles withdraws from the battle after he’s insulted by Agamemnon commander in chief of the Greek army, who takes his mistress away from him in short, Achilles is sulking while he soaks his companion disaster happens.

[00:13:41] And his best friend since childhood is killed this arouses, his fury, and he returns to battle on a violent rampage of revenge slaughtering all in his path, including the noble Hector. Who is the chief defender of Troy and the other hero of the Epic. Also playing a role in this drama is Odysseus who will later be the hero of the Odyssey.

[00:14:06] Both of these years. And Achilles have been told their fates beforehand. Achilles knew he was to die in Troy and ODC is knew he wouldn’t be able to return home for 20 years. Ideally, it’s headed to Troy. Anyway, convinced a short, honorable life was preferable to a long mediocre life or DCS on his part tries to avoid going by faking insanity.

[00:14:29] A ruse that is quickly discovered Achilles does die in Troy when Perez shoots an arrow into his famous vulnerable heel. But this happens after the end of the Elliot. Odysseus for his part is doomed to 20 years of travel. And this of course is what makes up the story of the Odyssey. There are three basic plots or themes in the Elliott.

[00:14:52] First is the individual, the story of Achilles of his uncontrolled anger and his tragic destiny. Second is the story of the Trojan war with a focus on this one year. And third is the relationship between men and the gods or the forces of fate. So we have a personal theme, a social theme, and a universal theme.

[00:15:16] All three are tragic. Although the universal theme of men and gods has occasional touches of humor and irony, the attitudes and ideals portrayed by Homer are uniquely Greek, but they also have relevance for us today. That’s why the Eliot remains a work of universal and seemingly eternal appeal. Plato called it, the Bible of all Hillis Hillis being the Greek world.

[00:15:41] And he said this for centuries after Homer had written his masterpiece for the modern reader, it’s sometimes difficult to see at first glance, why such an Epic is considered so profound because on the surface, the Elliot seems to be just a gruesome bloody war story with lots of graphic death scenes and the hero who is sulky proud and stubborn.

[00:16:05] That of course is just the surface. In reality, the Iliad is an Epic myth, a symbolic attempt to explore man’s psychological makeup and his predicament in the universe through poetry. This particular myth suggest in the long run, the helplessness of men in relation to external powers, the power of destiny and the discord and stress the results from man’s weaknesses.

[00:16:31] The true origins of the Trojan war were as mysterious and shadowy to Homer and his contemporaries as they are to us today. So Homer had the freedom and opportunity to create a myth around that war that could then explore themes relevant to all Wars and to men in general, the days of the Trojan war and of Homer’s Greece are far away from us.

[00:16:55] Now he had Homer’s poems easily transport us to those ancient times. His characters are distinct and lifelike, his seniors are richly described and the timeless themes of the story settle into the deepest level of our consciousness. We know very little about the man who wrote these two remarkable poems, and there are many more questions about him than answers.

[00:17:20] Some people believe that Homer was blind based on certain references he made in some of his poetry. Even though the life of a Bard might be an ideal profession for a blind man. There is no indisputable evidence that Homer was indeed blind. There is really only one biographical statement that can be made about Homer with confidence.

[00:17:42] He was an Ionian probably from the Island of Kyle’s. I only was the name, the Greeks applied to the islands of Asia minor and to Asia monitor itself. Homer was born sometime between eight 50 and seven 50 BC at the end and the beginning of a long tradition of Epic poetry and true brewers. He was at the end of the tradition of oral poetry, which had flourished for many centuries before and then Greece, although his written epics of these are all that survive of them.

[00:18:16] He stands at the beginning of the history of Greek literature, a very prominent history. Indeed. The Greeks are a nation of storytellers and Homer is the earliest example we have of that esteemed tradition. We know more of Homer’s time than we do of Homer. And more of the times he wrote about which is valuable and contributing insight and understanding to this work, perhaps the essential fact about ancient Greece that plays a part in the Iliad is that the greatest value men had was that of glory.

[00:18:49] Achieving glory was their primary goal and motivation. The purpose of achieving glory was to guarantee themselves mortality for the Greeks. Leave that death was the ultimate fact of man’s reality and that the only way to transcend it was in lasting fame and honor. Heroes were constantly in fear of disgrace and spent little dime.

[00:19:13] If any, considering personal morals, the opinion of their community and comrades was all that mattered. If heroes failed to recognize how much their actions were ruled by the gods, they would fail and make tragic errors. They were expected to voice their own greatness, but at the same time to show modesty to the gods.

[00:19:35] They also accepted the pattern of heroism, which included suffering and death. The only way for a man to prove his social status. And his honor was on the battlefield. These beliefs explain the actions of Homer’s heroes and give perspective to the war itself. War was an opportunity to gain this all important glory.

[00:19:58] Troy is not just a city to be defeated and looted. It is a city that may grant the Victor immortality to the Homeric Greeks. The most important quality a man could have was what they called RET, which means excellence or a power of excellence, or the ability to Excel. This is what every hero strove to achieve.

[00:20:20] It was the quality that brought him on or among his fellow men. It was the means to his glory and therefore to his immortality, this society and life Homer portrays is a composite of Mycenaean civilization and successive eras of Greek history. Up until Homer’s time. During the passing of those ages, the poems were being passed along orally through the generations and eat generation was adding and modifying them from their own current point of view.

[00:20:52] For example, Homer was of Ione via a section of Greece noted at the time for its sense of individuality. In I only a poem were recited by one person in contrast to other areas of Greece where poetry was sung by many people. And instead of songs about communal spirit as was also common in other areas, the Ionian poems exalted the spirit of the individual, both the Iliad and the Odyssey, distinguished individual characters and priests, their accomplishments through excavations at the ruins of Troy archeologists.

[00:21:28] Now believe that the Trojan war occurred about the year 1250. At this time, society was similar to that of the middle ages. It was basically feudal. Greece was broken up into many small kingdoms, each ruled by a King. And these kingdoms were made up of houses or estates that were called ECOS life revolved around the household, which had a master, his family and servants and slaves.

[00:21:57] The slaves were females who had been captured in conquered cities. The men in such cities were always slaughtered. Each house had its own land and was self-sufficient. The householder was the noble men of his day. The only person superior to him was the King of his land who would sometimes call the Nobles into assembly to discuss important matters.

[00:22:21] This same hierarchy was maintained on the battlefield. The warriors like Achilles and Odysseus were all nobleman or householders. And the generals like Agamemnon, we’re all Kings Agamemnon, who was the leader of the Greek forces of Troy was King of the largest, most powerful Greek city of that time. My CNA, that’s why this period of time is referred to as the Mycenaean age.

[00:22:48] Their goal on the battlefield was of course, glory, immortality, and the demonstration of their RET or excellence singing minstrels developed, partly so that this lasting glory and immortality could be guaranteed their task was to make sure that future generations would know no of the marvelous deeds of the heroes and past generations.

[00:23:11] That task was clearly successful for today. 3000 years after the Trojan war was fought, readers still find themselves mesmerized by Homer story of it. We’re going to begin that story in a minute, but first let’s familiarize ourselves with the central characters. The hero of the story is Achilles. A man who is half mortal and half immortal, or as they called demigod, his mother was the goddess Thetis.

[00:23:40] And his father was a man that has dipped Achilles in the river sticks. When he was born, rendering him immortal everywhere, except his heel. Now he is the greatest warrior in the Greek army and a consummate Greek hero. But he has flaws too. His pride is excessive he’s headstrong and his wrath is the dominant theme of the poem.

[00:24:03] Achilles is death is frequently predicted in the Elliot and he will be slammed by Paris with an arrow shortly after the end of the poem, Agamemnon is the King of my CNA greases largest city and commands the Greek forces of Troy. He is also brother of miscellaneous. The husband of Helen Agamemnon is irresolute and often makes foolish decisions.

[00:24:27] He’s challenged by the independent Achilles who is younger and far braver than the King. Odysseus is another Greek warrior, brave and strong, but known more for his shrewdness and guile. He seems less influenced by the code of honor than his fellow Nobles. And more interested in Savannah Helen is the only mortal woman who plays a major role in the story.

[00:24:51] She was mad , but train off to Troy with Paris. Helen is supposedly the most beautiful woman in the world, and she’s also very passionate. Nevertheless, she has some deeper qualities and seems to wish she could rise above her own nature. She admires the Manliness of her husband in battle deciding he’s superior to Paris, her lover, whose rather an irresponsible boy type.

[00:25:18] She also admires me Hector, the Nobel Trojan, who is the main defender of the city. Hector is commander of all the Trojan forces, the greatest of all the Trojan warriors and a man of great virtues. He’s conscious of his duty and his responsibilities to his people. He’s a devoted family man, and he’s willing to sacrifice himself for his people.

[00:25:41] Hector’s only flaw is a tendency to overconfidence and a concern for his reputation, but generally he emerges as the complete antithesis of the other hero. Achilles. Paris is the other important Trojan. The man who started the whole war by running off with Helen, he has no concern or guilt about it, this or anything else for that matter.

[00:26:05] Paris is smooth and pleasure seeking. He is not mired by the warriors of either side who think he’s scary, hourly and blacks Manliness. Paris is Hector’s brother. The gods also play an important part in the story of the Elliot as they do in most ancient Greek stories. Here’s a brief reminder of who they are.

[00:26:24] Zeus is the Supreme God and King of Olympus. His duty is to carry out the will of destiny. So he’s officially neutral in the war, although he actually has a sympathy for the Trojans. Apollo is the son of Zeus fighting on the train side. He’s the God of prophecy like poetry and music. Athena is the daughter of Zeus goddess of wisdom and war.

[00:26:48] She plays a prominent role fighting on the side of the Greeks in revenge against Paris for choosing her sister Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess. Hara is the wife and sister of Zeus. The goddess of married love. She fights for the Greeks for the same reason. Athena dose Paris offended her too by choosing Aphrodite.

[00:27:11] Aphrodite is another daughter of Zeus, goddess of passionate love. She is the patron of Paris. So she fights on the Trojan side. There are many other gods and many other mortals in the Elliot, but these are the most important ones. Now let’s begin with a story in a recent trade on a town near Troy Achilles and Agamemnon.

[00:27:34] Have each been awarded a slave girl. Agamemnon’s girl is the daughter of a priest who comes begging for her return, Agamemnon refuses and in despair, the priest prays to Apollo for revenge on the Greeks, a plague descends on the camp, and many men die on the 10th day of the plague. Akitas goes over Agamemnon’s head and assembles the army.

[00:27:57] He calls for a soothsayer who says the plague is the result of Agamemnon’s refusal to return the girl to her father. Agamemnon is furious and demands that if he, they must give up his girl, then he must be repaid with a Akili sister, girl. This enrages Achilles who consider stabbing Agamemnon, but is restrained by the goddess Athena nest store oldest.

[00:28:21] And why is this of the soldiers pacifier as the two men, but Achilles feels discouraged and announces that he’s withdrawing his troops from the battle. He says he has no personal quarrel with the Trojans anyway, and was fighting only to help Agamemnon and mentally is in retrieving mentalis, his wife, Helen.

[00:28:42] It is unjust to take his war prize. The slave girl from him. He resolves to fight no more. After Agamemnon sends a Harold to collect a galas, his girl Akili Swanders by the seashore, weeping over his disgrace. He asks his mother a goddess to enlist. Zeus is aid in helping the Trojans defeat his fellow Greeks.

[00:29:04] So they will realize his true worth for Achilles is their strongest warrior cause yous agrees, but he knows that this will inspire the wrath of her, his wife, Hara who hates the Trojans to fulfill his promise. Zeus sends a false dream of hope to Agamemnon who becomes convinced he can defeat the Trojan in the next battle.

[00:29:27] When the Trojans hear about the plant assault, Hector orders, his troops to meet the Greeks on the plane in front of Troy, the two armies advance on one, another Paris steps forward and challenges any of the Greeks to meet him in personal combat. But when Minnelli is accepts, the challenge Paris is overcome by fear and hides within the Trojan ranks.

[00:29:51] When he receives a scolding from his brother, Hector, he agrees to the Juul. The terms are that the winner is awarded Helen and a treaty of peace will end the war. They fight with javelin and sword and mentally his wounds, Parris, and starts to drag him towards the Greek clients. But the goddess Aphrodite interferes and rescues Paris by concealing him in a mist.

[00:30:16] She carries him to his bedroom and brings Helen to join him. Agamemnon declares, middle layers has won the battle and demands that Helen be returned to the Greeks on Olympia. Zhu supports Agamemnon’s claim and declares. The war should be over, but his wife Herro convinces him to continue the war since she wants to see Troy completely destroyed.

[00:30:39] He gives in and sends the goddess Athena down to arrange a continuation of the fighting. Athena inspires a Trojan soldier to shoot an arrow at Agamemnon assuring. It will bring him lasting fame, the injury to Agamemnon isn’t serious, but the Greeks are appalled by this violation of the truths. They arm themselves fall into line and prepare for another battle.

[00:31:03] The class between the two armies is violent and large numbers of men on both sides are killed. The outstanding warrior this day is the Greek soldier diameters, whom Athena has inspired with exceptional courage and skill. She gives him sights so he can distinguish the men on the battlefield from the gods.

[00:31:23] But when the goddess Aphrodite protects a Trojan soldier, the Elma, these wounds her, she returns to Olympus crying and Zeus warns her to stay off the battlefield in the future. Aires who is Aphrodite’s lover now enters the battle, helping the Trojan leader, Hector areas, strong and brutal influence. And soon the Greeks withdraw to camp.

[00:31:47] Now the Athena fly to the aid of the Greeks. They give fresh strength to the wounded diabetes and he storms back into battle wounding the guard areas and sending him flying back to Olympus. Then Athena and hair are returned to Olympus to leaving only morals on the battlefield of Troy. The Greeks charge on there is much slaughter and the Trojans begin a folded treat in Troy.

[00:32:13] Hector agrees with the women that a sacrifice must be made in a Thena step. Then he seeks his way. Brother Paris, whom he finds lounging with Helen. He rebuked him in Paris agrees. He has disgraced himself and must join the fight. Then Hector visits, his wife and baby son, his wife begs him not to endanger himself any longer, but Hector speaks of his duty to Troy.

[00:32:38] He then admits that in his heart, he knows Troy will fall. He worries about what will happen to his wife and child after he’s dead, but knows he cannot change the will of the gods. Hector embarrass rejoined, the Trojan forces and the battle resumed. Athena and Apollo decide, there must be a Juul between two opposing warriors.

[00:33:01] So they send this information to Hector, but Hector has a fierce reputation and no Greek offers to meet him. Next door gives a stirring speech that finally inspires nine warriors to volunteer. And after the drawing of lots, it is decided that Ajax shall meet Hector. Ajax and Hector engage in a ferocious Juul in which neither can overcome the other, a temporary truce is called in Troy’s.

[00:33:28] Some of the Trojans appeal to Paris to return Helen and end the war. But Paris refuses on Olympus. Zeus tells the gods. He is about to end the Trojan war and any interference on their parts. Won’t be tolerated. However, when Athena asks to be allowed to advise the Greeks, he gives her permission. The Army’s class again, the next morning, while Zeus watches from nearby Mount Ida, the Trojans are victorious that day and the Greek commanders flee the Trojans, pursue them with Hector at their lead cheering and fighting bravely on heroine.

[00:34:05] The Athena prepared to intervene on behalf of the Greeks, but Zeus notices their approach and sends them back to Olympus. The Trojans drive the Greeks back behind their fortifications and then camp in the open for the night. Ready to take up battle in the morning, the Greeks are completely demoralized.

[00:34:23] Even King Agamemnon burst into tears, proclaiming the war lost and suggesting they return home. But the is leaps to his feet and rallies the troops with a fierce speech about their heroic heritage and says it is faded that Troy will fall. The next store tells Agamemnon that it is the absence of Achilles that is causing their defeat and that he Agamemnon is responsible for it.

[00:34:49] The King agrees to send gifts to Achilles when Achilles rejects them, saying he can’t be bought and sold. Nothing Ganny raise the public insult. Agamemnon has caused him when this message is given to Agamemnon. He is filled with sorrow. Diabetes says it was a mistake to try to appeal to someone as conceded and stubborn as Achilles.

[00:35:14] And they all agreed to do their best to protect their ships from the Trojans. The next morning, they armies offers to slip into the Trojan camp and see if he can learn their plans. He selects Odysseus to accompany him on their way. They discover a Trojan spy and from him, they gain information about Hector’s location and plans.

[00:35:35] They also learn of a new group of troops that is unprotected. They killed the spy attack, the new troops and return to camp with chariots horses and other booty. There is rejoicing among the greets and diameters and Odysseus become the heroes of the day. The next morning, the Greeks drive the Trojans back at first, but then Agamemnon and most of the leaders are wounded and forced to withdraw from battle.

[00:36:01] The Trojans regained the ground. They lost and inflict many casualties on the Greeks. Akilis watches these developments with alarm and begins to grow frustrated at his own self-imposed uselessness. He sends Patrick Lewis, his Squire and dear childhood friend to get details of the battle. Patrick Lewis goes to next store who suggests he tried to convince Achilles to join the battle.

[00:36:26] And if that fails that he put on Achilles’s armor and joined the battle himself since just the sight of the famous armor might frighten the Trojans into retreat. The Trojans continue their violent onslaught and the Hector ignoring the bad omen of an Eagle that flies overhead manages to break through the Greek wall.

[00:36:47] He forces the Gates open with a large stone and the Greeks retreat in Banick as the Trojans charge in the Zeus, having brought the Trojans, as far as the Greek ships now relaxes and turns his attention to other matters. Again, men are unconvinced of defeat, wants to retreat by sea, but Odysseus says this plan is dishonorable.

[00:37:10] And the only choice is to go among the ranks and try to encourage the men. In Olympus heresy is that the sea God Poseidon is trying to help the Greeks to give him the opportunity to do this. She seduces her husband Zeus, and afterwards he falls into a deep sleep Patroclus implores Achilles to let him wear his armor and go into battle.

[00:37:34] When Achilles sees the flames of the Greek ships and knows the Trojans have another victory. He consents, but he wants Patrick lists to do no more than rescue the ships for if he attacks Troy, he may be killed when the Trojans see Achilles forces approaching and see his armor, they are panicked.

[00:37:53] Achilles men destroyed the Trojan advantage and Hector leads his men back to Troy. Patroclus pursues them to the walls of Troy slaughtering, nine Trojans in only one charge. Apollo decides to help the Trojans striking Patrick. Plus from the bag knocking off his armor, a Trojan soldier then pierces him with his javelin and Hector finishes him with a spear in the belly with his dying breath.

[00:38:18] Patrick Lewis says it was not Hector who destroyed him, but the gods and deadly destiny, Hector then takes achilles’ armor. And after a fierce battle, the Greeks rescue Patrick plus his body and return it to camp. When Achilles hears of path pluses death, he is beside himself with grief. He lets out a war cry that terrorizes the Trojans and they retreat.

[00:38:43] The Trojans want to stay in the safety of the city, but Hector insists, they fight on the open ground. Fetus Akilah says mother has a glorious new suit of armor made for him by the God of blacksmiths, Achilles announces to the Greeks that his quarrel with Agamemnon is over and he’s ready for battle. He knows his death that Troy has been foretold, but fields, nothing can prevent him for avenging the death of his friend, Patrick LIS.

[00:39:10] The Greeks Gallup into battle. Meanwhile, Zeus gives the gods permission to assist on either side for Achilles must be prevented from exceeding the bounds of victory set by fate immediately Hara Athena Poseidon, Hermes, and have faced us fly to the side of the Greeks while Aries, Apollo Artimus and Aphrodite fly to the side of the Trojans.

[00:39:34] The battle opens with much fury Akili sweeps through the field in a rage killing every Trojan. He can, the Trojan troops flee and panic some for the city. Some for the river Achilles follows the troops to the river and so violent as a slaughter that the river overflows with dead bodies, the gods fighting for the Greeks prevent the river of God from attacking Achilles with waves and currents.

[00:40:01] Then the gods excited by human warfare, their own battles. I think feet areas and Aphrodite here are drives ms. From the field Achilles can 10 years to drive Trojans from the field. And most of them take refuge in the city. Hector stands outside, preparing to meet Achilles one to one. Yet when Achilles approaches, Hector is overcome with fear and tries to flee.

[00:40:27] Akilis pursues him and they run ground the city walls three times while Hector tries to draw Achilles within the range of the Trojan arches on the wall. Finally, Athena tricks, Hector. She tells him he will have help against the Gillies. So he stops running and faces Achilles. Achilles casts is spear and misses, but Athena returns it to him.

[00:40:49] Hector throws his spear and hits his Mark, but it can’t penetrate the define armor. Finally, Achilles lunges his spear into Hector’s throat. As the Trojan dies, he begs that his body be returned to his family for a proper funeral. Achilles refuses. He fastens the corpse to his chariot and drags it along the ground in disgrace.

[00:41:13] Within the walls of Troy, the citizens watch and moan and lament their heroes. Piteous fate Hector’s wife collapses back at camp Achilles leads the Greek warriors to honor his dead friend, Patrick LIS they build a large funeral Pyre loaded with valuables. He even sacrificed 12 captive Trojans and then light a flame.

[00:41:36] Afterwards Achilles takes the ashes of Patrick Lewis to be buried alongside his own body. After the funeral, there are ceremonial games in honor of Patrick lists all during this time, Hector’s body lies on the ground unattended, but Apolo and Aphrodite protected it from the K and from the ravages of predators nine days pass.

[00:41:58] And on each day they Achilles ties Hector’s body to his chariot and drags it around a funeral. Pyre of Patroclus Zeus decides the body of Hector should be returned to his people. Hector’s father preamp that King of Troy comes to claim it aided by the gods. He appealed soulfully to Akilis, who was touched by memories of his own home and parents.

[00:42:22] And finally agrees to return the body. He invites pre-amp to stay for dinner and both men weep together over their own sorrows. All the people of Troy come to mourn Hector, they build a magnificent funeral Pyre, and then they place his bones in a golden chest, which is buried in a shallow grave afterward.

[00:42:43] There’s a great funeral banquet. And with this banquet, the Elliot comes to an end. As you know, there is legend that follows the end of the Iliad. Achilles is killed by an arrow shot by Paris for easiest is granted. Kayla says, armor Ajax is furious over this because he wanted it and threatened to kill the green cleaners, then overcome with remorse skills himself.

[00:43:06] Paris is later killed. The Greeks entered Troy in a massive wooden horse and destroyed the city with fire, killing all the men and taking the women as slaves, the goddesses, heroine, and Athena finally have their revenge. There are many themes and messages in the Elliot and hundreds of scholars have written thousands of pages and spend innumerable hours discussing them.

[00:43:30] One of those themes is justice, which operates in a variable brutal way in the story often than not men find themselves confused, deceived, and ultimately destroyed by powers beyond their control represented of course, by the gods in the Elliot. The basic belief of the ancient Greeks was that man was in the grip of forces far stronger than he and was at the whim of those forces or more specifically subservient to the will of Zeus.

[00:44:03] At the same time, there are also issues of personal responsibility and men must make decisions in which they weigh their passions against their reason. Akili suspension, which manifested mostly as breath was the source of much suffering on the part of his fellow warriors, because he refused to join their battle out of pride.

[00:44:26] They endured many losses and fatalities there is, and Helen’s passion was the initial cause of the war. I got Memnon to allows his passion to get the better of him since his rage against tequila is what leads the warrior to his withdrawal from the battle. The failure of reason and the lack of control over human passion is shown to be the chief cause of discord and tragedy.

[00:44:50] If man behaves irrationally irrational things will happen to him nature and the gods join into Inforce, this irrationality and then tragedy results. This question of who and what was responsible for man’s destiny man himself or the gods. And fade was the most fundamental question to the Greeks feed as portrayed through the gods is indifferent to human tragedy.

[00:45:18] Although the gods will show a passing interest. If one of their favorites is in danger, one purpose of the Elliot is to show the importance of man’s life in this very struggle itself. Achilles is a hero because he emerges from this struggle a better man. He first goes through stages of pride fury and revenge that are almost inhuman, but these emotions are all brought on from a state of anguish.

[00:45:47] He’s been deprived of his honor, which in ancient Greece was the only thing that mattered. And then he’s lost his best friend because of his irrational behavior. But when he finally charges into battle, knowing he’s doomed to die, when he is moved by the poignant please of Hector’s father to return his son’s body.

[00:46:09] And when he does give up that body, he has undergone an important transformation. He has an effect, become human. Again, he has demonstrated humility, compassion, and a recognition of the forces greater than he is. He comments, men are wretched things and the gods who have no cares themselves have woven sorrow into the very pattern of our lives.

[00:46:35] He has developed a genuinely tragic vision of life and has grown into a full, tragic hero. He knows that honor as men see, it is not as important as the real values of life. Therefore, he gives up Hector’s body, which is rightfully his. Even though at the beginning of the story, he was loathed to give up.

[00:46:56] Even a slave girl, Achilles has learned and grown through the testing ground. That is war war in the Elliot is a proving ground. Well, the soul, and although it’s brutal and tragic, it gets just meant the opportunity to learn from their suffering. Nowhere are men so confronted with the idea of death than they are on a battlefield.

[00:47:19] In this atmosphere of constant and inevitable death men like Achilles learn to value life and to search for meaning the men in the Iliad have far more dignity than the gods, simply because as morals, they suffer and die and must face that tragic fate with courage and honor, they must find a way to live life.

[00:47:43] So that life is something more than a thing that ends in death. At the beginning of the story, that way for Achilles was fame, glory, and pride. But by the end, it’s humility and understanding compassion and acceptance of his own preordained death. Although Achilles meets his noble demise shortly after the end of the Iliad.

[00:48:05] There is another hero who has yet to play out his destiny with the gods. And that is Odysseus. The Oracles have already told him that he will not return home for 20 years after the victory in Troy. And next time we will learn about the many adventures and lessons that await this brave warrior on his famous journey, Homeward known as the Odyssey, but that is for next time.

[00:48:31] I would like to thank you very much for listening to the themes, stories, characters, and underlying motives of this immortal book. And I hope you found it useful. I hope it gave you a kind of insight into the story or even encouraged you to read this story. If you haven’t read it already, don’t forget that you can find the transcript of this episode and a short quiz. [00:48:57] On my website and the link to this post, you will find in the description of this episode. Thank you very much for listening to another episode from English plus podcast. And I will see you next time.

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