Vocabulary Builder 10

Description

In this Vocabulary Builder episode, you will learn the following words: avenge, cede, deluge, discretion, giddy, impact, intimidate, liberate, logical, misrepresent, optional, outright, rendezvous, rotund, saunter, sluggish, subordinate, tint, variable, and verge. You will check your understanding through the interactive activities on Quizlet, the PDF downloadable worksheet, and the interactive quiz. All available in this post.

Audio

Transcript

Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.

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[00:01:07] Welcome to vocabulary builder 10. And I’m happy to tell you about the words we’re going to learn today. We’re going to learn 20 new words, and you’re going to have all the time in the world to practice them over the week, because I have prepared for you, a downloadable PDF, interactive exercises on Quizzlet and all of these resources you can find in the post I’m going to link to in the description of this episode.

[00:01:36] So after you finished listening to the episode, take the link and use all the activities to learn the 20 new words we’re learning this week and make them permanent in your active vocabulary bank. So the 20 words we’re going to learn today are avenge seed, deluge discretion, giddy impact intimidate, liberate, logical misrepresent.

[00:02:06] Optional outright rendezvous, rotund, saunter, sluggish, subordinate, tint, variable, and verge. Don’t worry. We will talk in detail about the words and the most important thing. We’ll talk about them in context. So you will be able to understand them exactly the way we use them in English and not just in a vacuum.

[00:02:33] So without further ado, let’s start with the text first in which we will have some of these words, and then we will have some sentences and we will discuss the meaning of the other words. So our text is about a special kind of King, maybe the most famous King of all time. And here, we’re talking about the King of the jungle, the lion.

[00:02:57] Well, is this lion an exaggerated kind of King? Are they exaggerated? Overrated? Let’s find out exaggerated Kings entries. People have regarded the lion as a noble creature. What have lions been misrepresented as the King of beasts? The truth about lions may surprise you without a doubt. Lions are handsome, powerful cats that may lions rich sick Maine makes it both beautiful and fierce looking.

[00:03:33] It would be a logical conclusion then to view the male as a great Hunter and protector. But this is not the case. Female lions do most of the hunting often at night and in teams, male lions rest, or sleep up to 20 hours a day. The so cold King is actually a sluggish Monarch, much of the time. Lions generally living groups known as prides, which are like family units.

[00:04:05] Females of several generations may stay in the same pride for life. Male lions wander away or are forced out by new, stronger males. A pride may have a variable number of members from as few as three to as many as 30 or more, depending on the amount of food in their territory. More food means larger prides.

[00:04:31] These meat eaters often feed on fresh kill that they bring down. However, Some lions are outright thieves. They steal meat from other predators to save themselves the effort of hunting. That doesn’t seem like noble behavior, nor does the fact that after female lions have made a kill males, chase them away so that they can take the finest morsels for themselves.

[00:04:59] Lions were once common to many parts of Europe, Asia, India, and Africa, but human hunters and farmers, as well as widespread development in regions where lions once roamed have all had a serious impact on the wild lion population today, wildlife funds are found only in parts of Africa and in a protected wildlife preserve in India, neither an endangered North threatened species.

[00:05:27] The lion continues to occupy its throne. So that was about the lions or the exaggerated Kings. It’s up to you to decide whether we exaggerate the lions as King beasts or not, but that is not what we want to do here. We want to focus on some of the words that we have in this text. So the first word we’re going to talk about.

[00:05:54] Is misrepresent now in our text, we said, but have lions been misrepresented as the King of beasts? Now misrepresent is spelled M I S R E P R E S E N T. Misrepresent obviously is a verb. And if someone misrepresents a person or situation, they give a wrong or inaccurate account of what the person or situation is like.

[00:06:23] Like when we say he said that the press had misrepresented, I added him as arrogant and bullying. What he’s saying that he is not arrogant and bullying, but the press gave the wrong impression, gave the wrong account of what he is like. So here, our question in the text, Have blinds been misrepresented as the kingdom of beasts?

[00:06:47] Did we give them wrong account of lions? Did we say that they are the King of beasts? They’re not. So that is our first word, misrepresent and misrepresent can be noun. When we say misrepresentation and synonyms for misrepresent are the verbs distort, disguise, pervert, or belie. And now for our next word, logical.

[00:07:10] L O G I C a L. Now in our text here, we said it would be a logical conclusion then to view the male as great Hunter and protector. Now, what is the meaning of logical? Logical is an adjective and in a logical argument or method of reasoning each step speed through if the step before it is true. And logical conclusion or result of a series of facts or events is the only one which can come from it.

[00:07:41] According into the rules of logic and something that is logical, obviously seems reasonable or sensible in the circumstances. Like when we say there was a logical explanation of what was happening. So once you hear this logical explanation, everything makes sense. So here, our question is it would be a logical conclusion after we talked about the details of the lion, the lion’s rich thick mane, how beautiful and fierce looking it is.

[00:08:10] It would be logical to assume that he is truly the King of beasts. But after what we learned about the lion, we know that it is not always the case. So that is for this word, logical let’s move to the next word. Sluggish. Sluggish is spelled S L U G G I S H. And in our text here, we said, The so called King is actually sluggish Monarch much of the time.

[00:08:39] Now we said earlier that the lion or specially the male lions, they arrested or sleep up to 20 hours a day. So that is sluggish. What is the meaning of sluggish, then you can describe something as sluggish. If it moves, works or reacts much slower than you would like, or is it normal? Like if you say the economy remains sluggish, it’s slower than we want it to be.

[00:09:05] And synonyms for sluggish are the words, inactive, slow, lethargic, or listless. And now for our next word, variable. Now in our text, we said a pride may have a variable number of members from as few as three, three to as many as 30 or more. Now, when we say variable and we said, the numbers could be from three to 30 or more, we’re not talking about a number that doesn’t mean change.

[00:09:32] So variable describes things that change, changeable things, something that is variable changes quite often. And there usually seems to be no fixed pattern to these changes. Like when we say there was a bit of a wind and it was blowing on shore or variable, but quite strong variable, it’s not, it was not constant.

[00:09:55] It was changeable. It was unstable. And these are synonyms for the word variable. Changeable unstable fluctuating or shifting. Now the uncountable noun from variable is variability. Like when we say there’s a great deal of variability between individuals, because people are not the same, there is a great deal of variability between them.

[00:10:18] Now variable can also be used in a little bit different context, different from what we talked about in our lion text, a variable is a factor that can change in quality, quantity, and size, which you have to take into account in a situation like when we say decisions could be made on the basis of price, delivery dates or any other variable.

[00:10:42] When we talk about price, delivery dates, these things change. These things don’t stay the same. So these are called variables. So that was our word variable. Now let’s move to the next word outright. Now outright is spelled O U T R I G H page T. And in our text here, we said, however, some lions are outright thieves.

[00:11:07] They steal meat from other predators to save themselves the effort of hunting they’re outright thieves. What is the meaning of outright then? I’ll try it is an adjective and you use our try to describe behavior and actions that are open and direct rather than indirect and outright can also be used as an adverb.

[00:11:28] Like when we say, why are you so mysterious? Why don’t you tell me? I’ll try it. And alt-right here is used as an adverb. The same thing. We don’t say outrightly I’ll try. It also means complete. And total, like when we say she had failed to win an outright victory, a total victory, a clear victory, a certain victory.

[00:11:50] So that was our word outright. And for our last word in this text, it’s impact. I M P a C T in the text, we said lions were once common to many parts of Europe, Asia, India, and Africa, but human hunters and farmers, as well as widespread development in regions, where lines once roamed have all had a serious impact on the wildlife and population.

[00:12:17] So, what is the impact here? We’re talking about how the population of lions decreased over time, because of the many reasons we just mentioned. So an impact is accountable now, and the impact that something has on a situation process or person is a sudden and powerful effect that it has on them. Like when we say they say they expect the meeting to have a marked impact on the future of the country, a powerful effect.

[00:12:46] And like when we said here in the text, a serious impact on the wild lion population, it had a serious Southern powerful effect on the population of lions and synonyms for impact in this sense, are the words effect, influence, consequences, and impression. But impact can also have other meanings and impact is the action of one object hitting another, or the force with which one object hits another.

[00:13:13] Like when we say the plane is destroyed, a complete wreck, the pilot must have died on impact and similar words for this meaning of impact are the words collision force, contact or shock, but impact can also be a verb. It’s not always announced to impact on a situation, process or person means to affect them.

[00:13:37] Like when you say such schemes mean little, unless they impact on people, they affect people. And if one object impacts on another, it hits it with great force. So that is also like the second meaning we talked about for impact. They’re going to be say, according to the air force, the Misael merely impacted with the ground prematurely and synonyms for this meaning of impact.

[00:14:04] Are the verbs hit, strike, crash, or clash? So these were the words that we wanted to talk about in the text. And now we will move on to talk about the other words we have in store for you. So we will have sentences and we will figure out the meaning of the words from these sentences. So let’s start with our first word avenge in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, that title, character vows to avenge his father’s death.

[00:14:32] If, you know the story of Hamlet, you know, that Hamlet’s father was killed. And when Hamlet finds out about this, he vows to avenge his father’s death. What do you think avenge means? In the sense, if you avenge a wrong or harmful act, you hurt or punish the person who is responsible for it, like he or Hamlet wants to hurt or punish the person who is responsible for his father’s death.

[00:15:00] And we have synonyms for revenge, like get revenge for revenge, repay or retaliate. And now for our next word, seed C E D E Spain, ceded territory to France. Now, when we talk about seeding territory to another country or to another authority, we’re not talking about seizing. We’re talking about giving away.

[00:15:26] If someone in a position of authority, seeds, land, or power to someone else, they let them have the land or power often as a result of military or political pressure. For example, we can say the general had promised to seed power by January and synonyms are the words, surrender, grant transfer or abandoned.

[00:15:48] And now for our next word, deluge. D E L U G E deluge owners are hoping this summer will bring a deluge of visitors to their new theme park in Minneapolis. Or we can say a torrential downpour deluge the entire town. So what is the meaning of deluge? We can tell from the context that it is a lot, it is a huge amount of something.

[00:16:16] And in the second example, we’re talking about something like flood. So what is the meaning of deluge? A deluge of things is a large number of them which arrive or happen at the same time. Like when we say a deluge of manuscripts began to arrive in the post. Or this has brought a deluge of criticism. So the deluge is not always a flood of water, like in natural disaster.

[00:16:43] It could be of anything. It could be a deluge of manuscripts. It could be like when we said here, a deluge of visitors. I know, of course it could be as well, a deluge of water. So a deluge could be a sudden, very heavy, full of rain as well. And they’ll use can also be used as a verb. Like when we used it in the second example, we said here, a torrential downpour, deluge, the entire town who use it as a verb.

[00:17:09] You can use it in both meanings. As a verb or as a noun. So if a person or a place is deluged with things, a large number of them arrive or happen at the same time. For example, we can say the mayor’s office was deluged with complaints. And like when we say overwhelm or swamp in Gulf or overload, So that was about deluge.

[00:17:35] What about our next word? Discretion and discretion is spelled D I S C R E T I O N discretion. Now here we can say my teachers suggested I use discretion in dealing with my difficult classmate. What is the meaning of discretion? Now discretion is the quality of behaving in a quiet and controlled way without drawing attention to yourself or giving away personal or private information.

[00:18:05] This is a little bit formal. We can say, for example, we say Larson sometimes joined in the fund, but with more discretion or he appreciated his discretion and his fidelity. If you’re talking about a person with discretion, you’re talking about a person you can trust. Because that person is not going to tell everybody what you told them, especially secrets and discretion can also have a different meaning.

[00:18:30] If someone in a position of authority uses their discretion or has the discretion to do something in a particular situation, they have the freedom and authority to decide what to do. When we say this committee may want to exercise its discretion to look into those charges. They have the freedom and authority to decide what to do.

[00:18:52] And synonyms for discretion are the words, prudence, tact, and discrimination. And now we’ll move to the next word. Giddy, G I D D Y. After the long race, the marathon, or felt giddy. Now, if you feel giddy, you feel unsteady and think that you are about to fall over, usually because you are not well. Like when we say dizzy or faint unsteady and the noun from giddy is giddiness.

[00:19:21] Like dizziness or vertigo, faintness or lightheadedness, but giddy can have another meaning as well. If you feel giddy with delight or excitement, you feel so happy or excited that you find it hard to think or act normally. Like when we say Anthony was giddy with self satisfaction or being there gave me a giddy pleasure.

[00:19:44] So it’s not always because you’re tired, you’re dizzy. It could be also with excitement and, and happiness. And sometimes this is even related to foolishness or frivolity. So synonyms of giddy can be the words, faint, frivolous, and flighty and antonyms can be levelheaded, serious, earnest and sober. And now for our next word, intimidate intimidate is spelled I N T I M I D a T E bullies may try to intimidate us, but if we stick together, we can stand up to their threats.

[00:20:22] So what is the meaning of intimidate? If you intimidate someone, you deliberately make them frightened enough to do what you want them to do. By force, obviously, because they are afraid like bullies when they try to make you do things, because you’re just afraid of them. They might hurt you. Of course, needless to say, that is so wrong, and this is not acceptable and you should never condone with things like that.

[00:20:48] But we’re not here to talk about bullies. We’re here to talk about the word intimidate synonyms for intimidate are the words, frightened pressure, threaten an alarm. And obviously bully as well is a synonym for the word intimidate. And now for our next word, liberate, L I B E R a T E. The police liberate the anxious hostages after 16 hours of confinement.

[00:21:19] So, what is the meaning of liberate? The borate is a verb and to liberate a place or the people in it means to free them from the political or military control of another country area, or group of people. And in a similar sense to liberate someone from something means to help them escape from it or overcome it and lead a better way of life.

[00:21:44] And to liberate a prisoner means to set them free. Now here, obviously they were able, the police were able to free the anxious hostages that were held for 16 hours and synonyms for liberate are the worst untie or unshackle. Yeah. Antonyms are the words in prison, federal shackle, or bind. And now for our next word, optional optional is spelled OB T I O N a L.

[00:22:14] The hotel will charge us for breakfast and dinner, but lunch is optional. So what is the meaning of optional? If something is optional, you can choose whether or not you do it or have it like here. The lunch, the lunch was optional. Synonyms are the words, voluntary elective or discretionary and antonyms are the words required, mandatory or compulsory.

[00:22:40] And now for our next word, rendezvous. And you can see that I’m trying to pronounce it in a French way, because it is a French word and you will know exactly how it is a French word from the weird spelling it has. Rendezvous is spelled R E N D E Z V O U S. So you see the strangeness in the spelling is the Zed in the middle, R N D E Z.

[00:23:07] Ed. We don’t usually have things like that in English, but in French it is common. So rendezvous with the Zed in the middle. Just remember it because it is very easy to forget. And to be honest, I usually forget to write it until I have this squiggly red line under the word. And I remember that I forgot the Zed in the words.

[00:23:28] So remember it rendezvous with Zed in the middle. Now our examples here, let’s all agree to rendezvous by the fountain on Saturday afternoon or. They kept their rendezvous a secret. So we can tell that from the VU can be used as a noun or as a verb. Now let’s start with a noun around the VU is a meeting often a secret one that you have with someone for a particular time and place.

[00:23:56] It is like appointment, meeting, date or engagement. And the connotation is usually for a date, not a regular meeting, but it can be used for a regular meeting, especially a secret one around Dayvoo as well. Can be the place itself. A rendezvous is the place where you have arranged to meet someone. Often secretly.

[00:24:17] And as a verb, if you run the VU with someone, or if the two of you around the VU, meet them at a time and place that you have arranged. So like the examples here, let’s all agree to run the VU as a verb by the fountain on Saturday afternoon, or as announced they kept their rendezvous a secret. And now for our next word, rotund wrote on this spelled R O T U N D.

[00:24:44] And let’s see how it is using this sentence. My friends like to display the largest and most rotund pumpkin outside their front door for Halloween, obviously. So what is the meaning of the largest and most rotund pumpkin now Roatan can be used for people as well. If someone or something is rotund, they are round and fat.

[00:25:08] So here for the pumpkin, we want to show how big and fat it is. Synonyms for. On other words, plump rounded, heavy or fat, and Roatan is usually a better word to use than fat. Fat is usually a negative word and people, people are offended by it, but true tan is a more diplomatic and funny word to use. Like when we talk about people who are wrote on my uncle is on and they always pick him to be Santa Claus for Christmas.

[00:25:39] So that is a nice word. It’s not offensive. As when we say my uncle is fat and that’s why they pick him to be Santa Claus every single year. That would be a little bit offensive. So that was rotund. And now for our next word, saunter, S a U N T E R. Let’s take a look at the examples we have here. Star sauntered pass his adoring fans, pretending not to notice their cries of joy.

[00:26:07] And that’s what stars usually do. Or we say it’s such a beautiful day to take a saunter. So again, center can be a verb and can be used as a noun. Now, if you Saunders somewhere, you walk there in a slow, casual way. So like a stroll wander amble or Rome. It’s not like you’re going in a hurry. Then you can tell somebody, why are you centering aren’t you late already?

[00:26:34] So you should hurry up. And now for our next word, subordinate subordinate is spelled S U B O R D I N a T E subordinate. And let’s take a look at these examples. A corporal is subordinate to a Sergeant. Or let’s ask a subordinate to help us file. You are not going to ask a senior to do that. You’re going to ask a subordinate to help you file, or parents often subordinate their own wishes for the sake of their children’s needs.

[00:27:09] And as you can notice, subordinate can be used as a noun and as a verb, but you have to be careful. Subordinate is the pronunciation of the noun, but if you want to use it as a verb, you change the stress and you say subordinate. So in the first one, the noun subordinate, and as a verb, we stress the last part and we say, subordinate.

[00:27:33] So here, let’s start with subordinate. As a noun, we said a corporal is subordinate to a Sergeant. And if someone is your subordinate, they have a less important position than you in the organization that you both work. And obviously the organization we’re talking about here is the army. And in the army, a corporal is less important than a Sergeant.

[00:27:57] Now we’re not talking about human beings. We’re just talking about ranks here. Maybe the corporal is much better a person than the Sergeant, or even the general, but we’re just talking about the ranks here. So a corporal is subordinate, a less important position. Then the Sergeant and subordinate can be used also as an adjective, someone who is subordinate to you as a less important position than you and has to obey you.

[00:28:24] And synonyms for subordinate in this sense, are the words inferior, lesser, lower or junior, but we said subordinate can also be used as a verb. If you subordinate something to another thing, you regard it or treat it as less important than the other thing. Like in our example here, we said parents often subordinate their own wishes for the sake of their children’s needs.

[00:28:48] They regard these, or they treat their own wishes as less important and they put their children’s needs first, or they put them as more important than their own wishes. I hope children can appreciate that one day, but that’s what happens now. Let’s move to our next word. Tint tint is spelled T I N T. And let’s take a look at the examples we have here.

[00:29:12] He wants to paint his room, a darker tint of blue, and I hope my ophthalmologist can tend to my sunglasses lenses pink. So obviously we’re talking about something that has to do with color, and that is what a tint is. A tint is a small amount of color. And if you put a tint on your hair, you diet a slightly different color.

[00:29:37] And we can use it as a verb as well. Something is tinted. It has a small amount of particular color or dye. And now for our last word, and that is verge V E R G E verge. Let’s take a look at the examples we have here. I was on the verge of tears today and that chatter verges on baby talk. So, what do we mean by verge?

[00:30:04] In those two examples, we used verge in the first example, as announced, obviously we said I wasn’t on the verge of tears today. Now the verge of a road, it is a narrow piece of ground by the state side of a road, which is usually covered with grass or flowers. But that is like the edge when we say on the verge of it, of something.

[00:30:24] And that is an expression. Yeah. If you are on the verge of something, you’re going to do it very soon, or it is likely to happen or begin very soon. And that is the exact meaning of what we said here. I was on the verge of tears. I was about to cry. This moment was going to happen very soon. And we have the other example when we used verge as a verb, we said this chatter verges on baby talk.

[00:30:50] And if someone, or some thing verges on a particular state or quality, they are the same as that state. Or so when we say that chatter verges on baby talk, you’re criticizing somebody because that is almost the same as baby talk. That verge is on baby talk. So these are all the words we have for you for today.

[00:31:13] Remember that these words we have for the whole week. So you have 20 words for the whole week. You can break them down in four words a day for five days. And then you can practice or take a break on the weekend. Oh, that’s totally up to you. And I have prepared everything you need to make this happen with the downloadable PDFs, with the extra activities that you can practice on Quizlet interactive activities. [00:31:41] And of course the quiz you can take. All of these, you can find in the link I provided in the description of this episode, this was your host, Danny saying, thank you very much for being with us in another episode from English plus podcast, I will see you in the end.

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