Vocabulary Builder 8



English Plus Podcast – Vocabulary Builder 8 TOC
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In this Vocabulary Builder episode, learn the words: affluence, arrears, cascade, cringe, crotchety, format, immobile, impassable, innovation, jovial, manacle, martial, minimum, nimble, onset, partition, perishable, retrieve, sinister and taut. You will check your understanding through the interactive activities on Quizlet, the PDF downloadable worksheet, and the interactive quiz. All available in this post.

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Dan: [00:00:00] Welcome to English plus podcast, the English we speak and much more learn English. Expand your knowledge and enjoy through our vocabulary. Builder, novel, grammar, series, stories, poetry, and literature episodes. All our episodes come with full transcripts, quizzes, downloadable worksheets, and more brought to you only in English Plus Podcast.

[00:00:30] Welcome to a new vocabulary builder episode from English Plus Podcast. We’ve changed things a little bit, not the number of words you’re going to learn. We still have 20 words to learn every week and we still have all the good stuff, the PDF downloadable, the interactive quizzes, et cetera, but we’ve changed the way we’re going to present these words to you.

[00:00:53] We’re going to listen to some passages and from these passages, we’re going to extract the words we want to learn every week. And that will make learning new words a lot easier because we are learning them in context. So, without further ado, let’s start right away with our first passage. So, I’ll start with the very first one, enjoy listening first, and then we will extract all the words we’re going to learn about today.

[00:01:20] Let’s check out the first passage.

[00:01:23] Ben: [00:01:23] So our first passage for today is about the birth of a puzzle.

[00:01:28] Crossword puzzles are so common that almost everyone knows how they work. Yet crosswords. As we know them first appeared less than a hundred years ago. Before then the only known word puzzles were simple British children’s games. In these, letters could be arranged into connecting words. A clever child could read words both across and down. In 1913, newspaper editor, Arthur Wynne wanted a unique activity for the fun page of his Sunday paper. He retrieved the old idea of the children’s word puzzle. Wynne’s innovation was to expand it into a larger written format.

[00:02:12] He drew interlocking boxes in a diamond shape. He gave clues to help solvers fill the boxes with letters to form linking words. Wynne’s puzzles started a trend that others would perfect. In 1924, Margaret Farrar published the first book of crossword puzzles. It became an instant best-seller people did crossword puzzles to relax, to improve their vocabulary and to keep their minds nimble.

[00:02:43] Crossword puzzles quickly became a fad and nearly every American newspaper featured them. In the days before television, people gathering to solve puzzles became a jovial social event. The fad grew into a familiar feature of daily life. Soon, serious puzzle solvers, demanded more challenges. Puzzle makers began to develop larger diagrams with a minimum of blank spaces.

[00:03:10] They wrote hard clues based on obscure facts, current events, quotations, puns, and riddles. In 1942, the New York Times added a Sunday puzzle edited by Mrs. Farrar. This happened at an opportune time during world war II, when war-weary readers were glad for a break from bad news, Farrar’s puzzles were wildly popular.

[00:03:35] Today, you will find crossword puzzles everywhere in newspapers, magazines, books at online interactive websites, and even on place mats. And now back to you, Dan.

[00:03:48] Dan: [00:03:48] So here in this passage, it is about crossword puzzles. But of course, we are interested in a couple of words in this passage that we’re going to learn more about.

[00:03:59] In a part of this passage, Ben said, Arthur Wynn wanted a unique activity for the fun page of his Sunday paper. He retrieved the old idea of the children’s word puzzle. So, what is the meaning of he retrieved? The very first word we’re going to talk about is retrieve. Retrieve is spelled R E T R I E V E. Retrieve. So, what is the meaning of this word retrieve?

[00:04:30] We said here that he retrieved the old idea of the children’s word puzzles. So, it’s like to bring back something. Now, first of course, we need to know that retrieve is a verb. And if you retrieve something, you get it back from the place where you left it. So, for example, we can say, “He reached over and retrieved his jacket from the back seat.”

[00:04:54] He got it back from the place where he left it. Or we can say, “The men were trying to retrieve weapons left when the army abandoned the Island.” So, this is another example to tell you that retrieve is to get back from the place where you left it. We have words like get back, obviously regain or repossess or fetch back as synonyms of retrieve when we have it in this meaning. Now retrieve can be used in different situations as well. If you manage to retrieve a situation, you succeed in bringing it back into a more acceptable state. For example, “He is the one man who could retrieve that situation.” To get it back to an acceptable state, not the bad state it is today.

[00:05:41] And for this meaning of retrieve, we have the synonyms redeem, save, rescue or repair. We use retrieve as well for information from a computer to retrieve information from a computer or from your memory means to get it back. For example, we say, “Computers can instantly retrieve millions of information bits”, or “As children get older, their strategies for storing and retrieving information improve.”

[00:06:07] So that was all about retrieve. So here, if we go back to the passage, He retrieved the old idea of the children’s word puzzle. He got it back from the past. It was not his idea in the first place. It was not Arthur’s idea, but he retrieved it. He got it back. You can use retrieve in different ways. It’s always a good idea to search for ways to use the same word in different contexts; that will help your English get better very fast. That’s about retrieve. Let’s move to the very next word. And it is right after Ben told us that he retrieved the old idea of the children’s word puzzle. Wynne’s innovation was to expand it into a larger written format. So, we have the second word and that’s innovation. Innovation is a countable noun, and innovation is a new thing or a new method of doing something.

[00:07:00] And in our passage, it is actually not a new thing he created, it’s not Arthur’s creation, but it’s a new method of doing something. It’s a new method of using those things, and that is Arthur’s innovation. We can say, for example, “The vegetarian burger was an innovation, which was rapidly exported to Britain.”

[00:07:20] So that was an innovation. The vegetarian burger. And synonyms for innovation are the words, change, revolution, departure, introduction, and innovation in this sense, as we said is a countable noun, so we can say innovations. But innovation can also be an uncountable noun and innovation is the introduction of new ideas, methods or things.

[00:07:44] Well, for example, we say “We must promote originality and encourage innovation.” Now, innovation as an idea here. So, when it comes as an idea, it is an uncountable noun. Remember we don’t say innovations in the sense synonyms for this meaning of innovation is the word newness, novelty, originality, or freshness.

[00:08:08] So that was about innovation. And if we go back it’s innovation was to expand, or we said Arthur’s innovation was to expand it into a larger written format. Now, obviously format is a word that has many meanings, but when we talk about the format of something, it is the way or order in which it is arranged and presented.

[00:08:31] Now we can talk about the format of a book or the format of a TV program, all the same. So, in this sense format has synonyms like arrangement, form, style or makeup. Now, obviously format has other meanings. When we talk about the format of a piece of computer software or a musical recording, and that is the type of equipment on which it is designed to be used or played.

[00:08:57] For example, possible formats for a musical recording are CD and cassette. For example, we say “His latest album is available on all formats.” And format can also be used as a verb. We say to format a computer disk and it means to run a program so that the disc can be written on. And of course, you don’t do that unless you really want to get rid of all the information on this disc.

[00:09:21] We use format as a verb in a different sense. We say to format a piece of computer text or graphics, and it means to arrange the way in which it appears when it is printed or is displayed on a screen. If you’ve ever used Microsoft word, you know exactly what that means, because it’s not just enough to type the things on screen and just print them.  You need to format the text before you print it.

[00:09:47] So that was about format. And now we will go to the next word and that is nimble. Now in our passage, Ben said people did crossword puzzles to relax, to improve their vocabulary and to keep their minds nimble. Someone who is nimble is able to move their fingers, hands or legs quickly and easily.

[00:10:11] For example, “Everything had been stitched by Molly’s nimble fingers.” or we can say “Val, who was light and nimble on her feet learned to dance the tango.” Now, here the synonyms for this meaning of nimble are the words, agile, active, lively, and deft. So that is the original meaning of nimble. But remember, in our text, we talked about nimble minds.

[00:10:35] So if you say that someone has a nimble mind, you mean they are clever and can think very quickly, like “A nimble mind backed by a degree in economics gave him a firm grasp of financial matters.” So, we can use nimble to talk about mind as well, not only hands, fingers or legs, and that means clever and can think very quickly.

[00:10:59] And now we come to our next word and that is jovial. Jovial is spelled J O V I A L. And according to Ben, crossword puzzles quickly became a fad and nearly every American newspaper featured them. In the days before television people gathering to solve puzzles became a jovial social event. What is the meaning of jovial?

[00:11:23] If you describe a person as jovial, you mean, they are happy and behave in a cheerful way. And we use this word more in writing than we use it in speaking. So jovial is the same, like saying cheerful, happy, jolly, or animated. So that was all about jovial. Let’s move to the last word in this passage that we want to talk about.

[00:11:46] And that is the word minimum. The fad grew into a familiar feature of daily life. Soon, serious puzzle solvers, demanded more challenges and puzzle makers began to develop larger diagrams with a minimum of blank spaces. So, what is the meaning of minimum? Now you might know what minimum means, but we will talk a little bit more about it.

[00:12:09] We use minimum to describe an amount, which is the smallest that is possible, allowed or required. And obviously this is an adjective. We use it as an adjective here. For example, we say, “He was only five feet nine, the minimum height for a policeman.” So that is the least allowed. If he is about one inch shorter, he will not be allowed to be a policeman because that is the minimum. Synonyms for minimum are the words, lowest, smallest, least, or slightest.

[00:12:44] But notice that minimum is also used as a noun. For example, we say this will take a minimum of one hour and here a minimum it’s a noun obviously here, or we can say, “Four foot should be seen as an absolute minimum.” So also, here minimum was used as a noun. So that might be the new thing you learn about minimum, but that’s not all. Minimum can also be used as an adjective to state how small an amount is, for example, you say, “The basic needs of life are available with minimum effort.” or we  say, ” Neal and Chris tried to spend the minimum amount of time on the garden.” And we can also use minimum as an adverb. If you say that something is a particular amount minimum, you mean that this is the smallest amount it should be, or could possibly be, although a larger amount is acceptable or very possible.

[00:13:39] Like when we say, “You’re talking over a thousand pounds minimum for one course.” So that was all about minimum. I hope you found some new stuff in minimum. You know, that’s the beauty of words. When we dig a little bit deeper, you think you know everything about a word, but when you dig deeper, you learn new things.

[00:13:59] So these were our first six words for today. We will learn some more words with another small passage read to us by Ben.

[00:14:08] Ben: [00:14:08] Our second passage is about Jeffrey.

[00:14:11] Jeffrey is such a crazy person. Despite his affluence, he never pays his debts, which he has a lot of. I don’t understand why he puts himself in a position like this when he doesn’t have to borrow money in the first place. You always find him in arrears and past due debts keep cascading on him. And he keeps avoiding people who want their money back. I would understand a fraud, which he is not, as he bays up in the end every single time. He is a coward, though. You should see him when people yell at him while demanding their money back, he becomes like a frightened little child. He cringes in fear and keep saying he’s sorry.

[00:14:54] In the end, he always pays up his debts, which he doesn’t have to build up in the first place. I will never understand why he does that.

[00:15:02] Now back to you, Danny.

[00:15:04] Dan: [00:15:04] So that was the story of Jeffrey. And Ben said, despite his affluence, he never pays his debts. So, what do you think affluence might mean? Now? We can tell it is something that has to do with money.

[00:15:18] It has to do, because we are relating it to debt. So, what might that mean? Obviously, affluence, which is spelled A F F L U E N C E is an uncountable noun. And affluence is the state of having a lot of money or a high standard of living. For example, we say, “The postwar era was one of new affluence for the working class.”

[00:15:44] Synonyms for affluence are the words. wealth, riches, plenty and fortune. So that was our first word here. But despite his affluence, he never pays his debts. So, we have another word that is related to this idea. And that is arrears. Arrears is spelled A R R E A R S. What is the meaning of arrears and how can we use it in a sentence?

[00:16:09] So arrears are amounts of money that you owe, especially regular payments that you should have made earlier. So obviously you’re late. You should have made those payments earlier. For example, we say, “They have promised to pay the arrears over the next five years.” So that was about arrears. And the next one past due debts keep cascading on him and he keeps avoiding people who want their money back.

[00:16:36] Well, we’re interested in the word cascade. Now, here the past due debts keep cascading on him. What is the meaning of cascade? Well cascade, which is spelled C A S C A D E can be a countable noun. And if you refer to a cascade of something, you mean that there’s a large amount of it. Like when we say, “A cascade of mail arrived from friends.” I will have to say that this is a little bit literary, so we don’t usually use it in everyday speaking, but that is the original meaning of cascade, obviously. And it is not like we use it as a verb. Now, before we move to talking about cascade as a verb, Cascade can also mean a waterfall. Like when we say Niagara Falls, that’s also can be called a cascade, but in our text here, we have cascade as a verb.

[00:17:30] Now, if water cascades somewhere, it pours or flows downwards very fast, and in large quantities, when you say, “A waterfall cascades down the cliff from the Hills behind.” The synonyms are the words flow, fall, flood, pour, et cetera. But here we’re not talking about water. We’re talking about past due debts. So, and here we come to another meaning. Another meaning we can use in a metaphorical way, not in a literal way like when we say water flows. If one thing cascades over another, it falls or hangs over it. It’s something like builds up or piles up on top of each other. So here, when we said pass due debts keep cascading on him, we’re trying to exaggerate the idea that these debts keep building up. That is what we meant by cascade.

[00:18:22] And that will bring us to the next word, which is cringe. Ben said you should see him when people yell at him while demanding their money back. He becomes like a frightened little child. He cringes and fear and keep saying he’s sorry. So, what is the meaning of cringe here? Cringe obviously is a verb. And if you cringe at something, you feel embarrassed or disgusted and perhaps show this feeling in your expression or by making a slight movement.

[00:18:53] But we can say, for example, “Molly had cringed when Anne started picking up the guitar.” She didn’t like it. She felt embarrassed or disgusted. We don’t exactly know here. But we know that she’s doing this kind of gesture, but we can also use that when we want to talk about fear, pain or horror, you can say, I cringed in horror.

[00:19:13] Synonyms for cringe are the words shrink, flinch, quail, or recoil. So that was about those words. Now let’s move to our next small passage and learn even more words.

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[00:19:55] Ben: [00:19:55] Now our third passage is about our senior architect.

[00:20:00] The senior architect is such a crotchety person. The other day he was so angry when I moved things around in the design. For him, whatever he places is immobile and should stay where he put it forever. But his arrangement made a few rooms in the house almost impassable. I don’t understand why he feels so threatened by other people’s ideas. I may be wrong, but in his mind, he can never be.

[00:20:28] Now back to you, Dan.

[00:20:30] Dan: [00:20:30] So here, our first word is crotchety. And this is spelled C R O T C H E T Y. Crotchety. The senior architect is such a crotchety person. Now crotchety is an adjective and a crotchety person is bad tempered and easily irritated.

[00:20:52] You can easily make this person angry and he’s not that pleasant to be around, bad tempered person. And we can see that, obviously, when we listen to the rest of the passage, now in the rest of it, we have a couple of words we’re interested in, and these words are immobile and impassable. Ben said, whatever he places is immobile and should stay where he put it forever.

[00:21:18] It’s something you can’t move. And this is obviously the meaning of the word. Immobile is spelled I M M O B I L E. And something or someone that is immobile is completely still, doesn’t move at all. Like when we say motionless, still, stationary, fixed, like when we say, “Joe remained as immobile as if he had been carved out of rock.” That is the meaning of immobile.

[00:21:45] Everything he places his immobile can’t be changed, can’t be moved. And immobile has a slightly different meaning, which is closer to what we had in this passage. Someone or something that is immobile is unable to move or unable to be moved. Like when we say, “A riding accident left him immobile.” Or a very heavy or immobile object.

[00:22:08] So like his designs, like the senior architect’s designs, he thinks at least they’re immobile. They can’t be moved because he put them there and synonyms for this meaning of immobile are the words, crippled, paralyzed, incapacitated, and laid up. And that leaves us with the last word we want to talk about in this passage.

[00:22:28] And that is impassable. Now here, the arrangement made a few rooms in the house, almost impassable. What does that mean? If a road or path is impassable, it is impossible to travel over because it is blocked or in bad condition. So the synonyms for impassable are the words blocked, closed, obstructed or impenetrable, and that was the design, and that was what the man tried to change in the design, but it was impossible because of the senior architect who didn’t want anybody to change anything. Now let’s move back to Ben and the next passage where we’re going to learn two more words.

[00:23:11] Ben: [00:23:11] Now this passage is about James.

[00:23:14] James was jovial this morning with the greatest innovation that will change the face of martial tactics forever, as he said. To be honest, I still don’t understand what that innovation is and how it might change things for the army, but his spirits were so up that nothing could manacle his enthusiasm. James is an intelligent man, indeed. I only wish he would use his intelligence in developing things that will be more useful to the human race. We already have too many people working on figuring out new ways and devices we can use to kill each other.

[00:23:52] Now back to you, Dan.

[00:23:55] Dan: [00:23:55] So here we have two words we’re interested in the words are martial, and manacle. So, the first one that will change the face of martial tactics forever. Now martial is spelled M A R T I A L and martial is an adjective and we use it to describe things relating to soldiers or war.

[00:24:18] For example, “The paper was actually twice banned under the martial regime.” Martial regime obviously is a system of government that is governed by the military. Synonyms for martial are the words, military soldierly. We can also use brave or heroic. That is very sensitive. It Depends on the context.

[00:24:40] Sometimes it’s not brave at all or not heroic, like when we said the martial regime, but in other contexts, we can do that. Now we have the next word, which is manacle, M A N A C L E Ben said, but his spirits were so up that nothing could manacle his enthusiasm. What is the meaning of manacle then?

[00:25:02] Now, manacle is a countable noun and manacles we usually use them in plural. These are metal devices attached to a prisoner’s wrists or legs in order to prevent him or her from moving or escaping. Like when we say handcuffs, bonds, chains, shackles. These are synonyms for manacles, but manacle can also be used as a verb.

[00:25:25] Now, if a prisoner is manacle, their wrists or legs are put in manacles in order to prevent them from moving or escaping. What we used here; nothing could manacle his enthusiasm is not a literal use of manacle. And that is something that you will come across a lot in English. A lot of words can be used in their metaphorical sense.

[00:25:48] Of course, when we talk about manacle, handcuff, the first thing we think about is prisoners, police and et cetera. You know, some people are put in jail, but you can use this word shackles, like “Nothing can shackle your imagination.” Nothing can chain your imagination. Obviously, the word chain or shackle are used in the same sense or manacle in this sense, but we can use it to talk about imagination, love, ideas, as well as we talk about the hands and legs of prisoners. So, this is the meaning of manacle. And remember we used manacle here as a verb and synonyms of manacle as a verb, we have the word handcuff, which works both ways for nouns and verbs. We have bind, confine and restrain, and that was all about this passage.

[00:26:39] Let’s move to the next passage. Now back to you, Ben.

[00:26:43] Ben: [00:26:43] Now this passage is about Joanna.

[00:26:46] Although Joanna is so nimble, and I’m sure she can have bigger dance moves, she’s keeping her routine to a minimum, especially at the beginning of the show, which talks about the onset of the civil war. It symbolizes the time when the country was partitioned against the will of its people. So, there was no room to move or do anything. I’m not a dancing choreography expert, but that’s what she told me. And now that I have seen it, I kind of understand what she was talking about. She is a great dancer.

[00:27:19] Now back to you, Dan.

[00:27:21] Dan: [00:27:21] So as you can see, we have the words nimble and minimum again, but we’re not going to talk about them as we did before we have new words, though, we have onset and partition.

[00:27:31] Ben said at the beginning of the show, which talks about the onset of the civil war. It symbolizes the time when the country was partitioned against the will of its people. So, the two words we’re interested in here are the words onset and partition.

[00:27:48] Now let’s start with onset. Now, onset is a singular noun. We don’t usually use it in plural. That’s why we say it’s a singular noun. We don’t have the onsets of things. And we usually say the onset of something or the onset of something is the beginning of it. We use it specially to refer to something unpleasant. Like we say, here, the onset of the civil war, or we can say, for example, “Most of the passes have been closed with the onset of winter.” Now, not saying winter is a bad thing, but it’s unpleasant. The passes are closed. So that was about onset. What about partition? The country was partitioned. So, partition can be a countable noun. Of course, we use it in the passage as a verb, but let’s talk about it as accountable.

[00:28:33] Now, first, now a partition is a wall or screen that separates one part of a room or vehicle from another. We use that in offices. Now new office is divided only by glass partitions, for example. And this is like, when we say screen wall or barrier. And partition can be used as a verb as well. If you partition a room, you separate one part of it from another by means of a partition.

[00:28:58] So it’s the same meeting, but we use it as a verb. We say separate screen or divide. Now, here we come to the meaning that we just got in our passage. If a country is partitioned, it is divided into two or more independent countries. Like when you say, “Korea was partitioned in 1945.” The synonyms for this meaning of partition are the words divide, separate or split up. So that was about partition and these were our two words for this passage. Now let’s move on to our last passage of the day. And the final three words we want to talk about. Now, Ben, could you read us the last passage please?

[00:29:41] Ben: [00:29:41] Now, our last passage for today is about a film I saw the other day.

[00:29:47] The film was taut. I couldn’t find any extra unnecessary scene or detail in it. The theme was about how perishable youth is and how impossible it is to retrieve the time you lose, trying to figure out the best way to live when the best way to live is simply to live every moment, and worry about the future only when it becomes present. At least that’s the film’s angle.

[00:30:12] Another thing I really liked about the movie was how the hero finally embraced his sinister intentions as his own flaws, and only then was he able to make peace with himself? I do believe that we all have bad intentions and thoughts, sometimes. We shouldn’t beat ourselves over that, but we should accept our flaws and learn how to be in control rather than deny them and let them take control of our lives. So that was all the passages we have for today. No back to you, Dan.

[00:30:44] Dan: [00:30:44] So the last three words we’re going to talk about today, and that will bring our tally to 20 words for today are the words perishable, taut and sinister.

[00:30:56] Now let’s start with a first word, which has taut. Ben said the film was taught. And taught here is spelled T A U T. So, it might sound like taught the past of teach, but it’s obviously not. Taut T A U T. What does that mean? Taut is an adjective. It’s something that is taut is stretched very tight like when we say, “When muscles are taut or cold, there is more chance of injury or strain.” And synonyms for this meaning of taut are tight, stretched, rigid, or tightly stretched.

[00:31:31] But this is not exactly the meaning of the film was taut. What does that mean? The film was about to be injured or we have a better chance for injury for the movie. Doesn’t make any sense, but we have more meanings to taut. If you describe a piece of writing or a film as taut, you mean that it is good because it is exciting and has no unnecessary details.

[00:31:54] Like the film Ben was talking about. She said it will taut no extra details. Nothing is there just to fill in the blanks that are actually holes created by the writer because of the plot is bad. So, the plot was taut, the film was taut actually. That means it’s good. It’s exciting, no extra details.

[00:32:14] And then. The theme was about how perishable youth is. Now, perishable is our next word. Perishable is an adjective. We use it mostly with food, but of course we can use it with anything else. If it works, like here perishable youth, perishable is spelled P E R I S H A B L E. Now goods such as foods that are perishable go bad after quite a short length of time. Now, we talk about perishable food, like fruits, vegetables, and meat. You can’t leave that out in the sun for example, or even not in the refrigerator for a long time before they go bad. Now, synonyms for perishable are words like short-lived, biodegradable, easily spoiled or decomposable.

[00:33:02] Of course, our youth is not an Apple, but it is more or less just like any other fruit or any other kind of food. Maybe it lasts a little bit longer, but not much longer. So, you need to preserve it. Maybe that’s the theme of the movie, or you need to make the most of it while it’s still there. That was perishable.

[00:33:23] And we come to our last word for today and that is sinister. Sinister and here we have it in the passage. Another thing I really liked about the movie was how the hero finally embraced his sinister intentions as his own flaws. Now sinister comes from the word sin. So obviously we’re not talking about something good.

[00:33:44] Sinister is an adjective and something that is sinister seems evil or harmful. For example, we say, “There was something sinister about him that she found disturbing.” Synonyms for sinister are the words, threatening, evil, menacing, and forbidding. So that was all, I hope you like this new format of the episode.

[00:34:07] We have those passages and there is something very important. We added to our show as well, and that we have chapters now. Chapters are not available everywhere. They’re just available on Spreaker or on my website. So, you can make good use of that by choosing which part of the episode you want to listen to.

[00:34:29] So, for example, if you don’t want to listen to the episode all at once, or if you want to listen to specific parts at a later time, you want to review something, you want to remember what we talked about in a specific place and you don’t want just to listen to the whole thing or keep scrubbing back and forth to find the place you want.

[00:34:50] We have created chapters for you. So, in the chapters you have the five passages we have, and you have the words. So, the chapters we’ve added serve like a table of contents. You can reach any passage right away and just listen to the passage and the words related to this passage. Or you can just go to individual words.

[00:35:11] We have all that covered in chapters. So that will be very useful, I guess, for you. I hope you like this addition as well. And please let us know if you have any suggestions and remember, you can find the whole transcript of this episode in the link we provide in the description of this episode. And also, this link will take you to your downloadable PDF, a link to the interactive quiz and the interactive practice on Quizlet.

[00:35:37] So please make sure you use the extra stuff that we create for you, because that is the way that will make the new words you learned here today permanent in your active vocabulary bank. Don’t forget to support us on Patreon. That will be a great way for us to continue on and to continue producing this content and new content that you might suggest in the future. [00:36:02] And for those who’ve already become patrons of our show. We thank you very much, and we do appreciate your support. Now, that’s all for today. A special thanks to Ben who helped us with the passages today. That was your host Danny from English plus podcast. I’ll see you in the next episode.

Quiz

Interactive Quizlet

Downloadable PDF

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