Word Power 1

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In this Word Power episode from English Plus Podcast, we will talk about the following words in context: consistent, endear, exploits, figment, jocular, portray, scenario, spoils, ultimate, and unflagging.

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Transcript

Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.

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[00:01:06] Welcome to the new word power episode from English plus podcast. In word power episodes. We’re going to read a text and learn some words that are included in the text. So we will be learning words in context. So if you take word power and vocabulary builder that we have every week, You will have a lot of words to learn every week.

[00:01:34] And all of these are learned in context so that you can enrich your active vocabulary bank. But before I leave it to Ben to read the text to you, I will tell you about the 10 words we’re going to learn today. These words are consistent in deer exploits. Figment jocular portray scenario, spoils, ultimate and unflagging.

[00:02:08] So now I will leave it to Ben and we’ll get back to talk about the words in detail. Let’s start with our text today, which is about Robin hood, Prince of thieves, Robin hood, Prince of thieves. Possibly as early as the 12th century, traveling minstrels began singing ballads in praise of the exploits of a thief named Robin hood.

[00:02:34] His skill in archery is free and easy lifestyle ensure with forest. And perhaps most of all is the ability to outwit the sheriff of Nottingham, endeared him to the common people in ballad after ballad. Robin hood was consistently pictured as one who stole only from the rich and share the spoils of his actions with the poor.

[00:03:00] Even though the legends portray him as the enemy of the nobility, Robin hood possessed, an unflagging loyalty to his King, Richard, the Lionheart it, this feeling was shared by many people at the time. As the stories of his remarkable bull champion of the people increases just in number. So did the size of his colorful band of thieves are huge.

[00:03:26] Hulk of a man called little John became Robin’s most trusted follower. Alan, a Dale, a minstrel entertain the group around the evening, campfire, the fat and ocular fryer dog kept everyone amused. In later ballads, Robin acquired a sweet heart, made Marion. This story included all the traditional romantic qualities, danger, secret meetings, disguises, and the ultimate triumph of true love was Robin hood, a living, breathing, human being, or merely the figment of some Balladeers imagination.

[00:04:06] Those who claim him to be real offer an interesting and believable scenario. The laws protecting the King’s forest and deer were quite strict in 12th century, England, perhaps a Hunter accidentally killed one of the Kings there as a wanted man. He may have gone into hiding in the deepest part of the forest.

[00:04:30] There. He might have been joined by sympathetic supporters. Part from the ballads. However, from evidence of Robin Hood’s existence is hard to find no color or historian of the time mentions him. The events described the various stories simply I’d have happened in the course of one life if time, even. So the romantic picture of the Prince of thieves endures in modern poems, operas and movies, Robin hood clearly lives on in legend.

[00:05:03] Well, thank you very much, Ben, for reading this exciting story for us, it’s about Robin hood, the exploits of Robin hood, whether Robin hood was real or just a figment of some Balladeers imagination. But our quest here is that 10 words we have to learn from this text. And we will start with a very first one, and that is exploited.

[00:05:29] Now I will read this part back so that you can. Get the word in its context in the text we have possibly as early as the 12th century, traveling minstrels began singing ballads in praise of the exploits of a thief named Robin hood. So if we think about the word exploits and by the way, it is spelled E X, P L O I T S exploit’s.

[00:05:59] I have to pay attention explodes. Here is a noun and it’s a plural. Now we always have it as exploited. It is so different from the verb exploits. So we don’t want to mix those. We’re just talking about the noun, the plural noun exploit’s and here. Obviously we’re talking about something good, actually something great because the minstrels sang ballads in praise, they were praising the exploits of Robinhood.

[00:06:29] So what is the meaning of exploits? Exploits are notable deeds feeds or actions, especially ones that are noble or heroic. So that’s the meaning of exploits. And by the way, I want you to pay close attention because when we’re done explaining the 10 words, we will do an exercise together. I will ask you questions and give you a couple of seconds to think before you can answer.

[00:06:59] And of course we have the Quizzlet interactive activities, the downloadable PDF, and the quiz with the transcript all on my website. And you can find the link in the description. But for now, let’s continue with the second word. And this one is India. India is spelled E N D E a R. And here in the text, we have it in the following excerpt, his skill in archery, his free and easy lifestyling Sherwood forest.

[00:07:30] And perhaps most of all, his ability to, with the sheriff of Nottingham endeared him to the common people. So, what is the meaning of endeared? Does it mean that people hated him because of these things? They hated him because his lifestyle and his legendary skills in archery, or his ability to outwit the sheriff of Nottingham, I don’t think so.

[00:07:56] India must have a positive meaning here. And actually it does. India is a verb. And if something endears you to someone, or if you endear yourself to them, you become popular with them and well liked by. Yeah. So that is the meaning of India. Let’s move on to the next word in the text we have, I have in ballad after ballad, Robin hood was consistently pictured as one who stole only from the rich.

[00:08:28] So here in ballad, after ballad, Robinhood was consistently, the word we are interested in is consistent and that is spelled C O N S I S T E N T. What is the meaning of consistently now here in ballad, after ballad, we’re talking about the story of Robin hood, not according to one minstrel. But actually, according to all the minstrels and all the ballads and all the minsters and ballads talk about the same story.

[00:09:03] So the story was consistent in a way, it was consistently pictured. Obviously we are using consistently here as an advert, but the meaning is the same. So what do we mean by consistent? Is it something that changes or is it something that doesn’t change? Well, obviously since we have the same story from different ballads and different minstrels, so it means that’s something that doesn’t change, but we have a little bit more meaning to this word.

[00:09:36] So we’ll talk about it in detail. Now, consistent is an adjective. And someone who is consistent, always behaves in the same way, has the same attitudes towards people or things, or achieves the same level of success in something. So that is someone who is consistent. So for example, when we talk about football players or athletes in general, consistency is very important because it’s not.

[00:10:07] Enough to be perfect in one match and then go to sleep for the rest of the season. You have to be consistent. So sometimes good players good and consistent players are better than brilliant players who just play a couple of matches brilliantly, but then they play badly for the rest of the season. So consistency or in the adjective form consistent.

[00:10:33] Means to be always in the same way and have the same level. Now we have it here in the text as an adverb consistently. But consistent also applies to ideas and facts and the meaning is close, of course, but it’s a little bit different. So let’s talk about that. If one fact or idea is consistent with another fact or idea, that means that these facts or ideas do not contradict each other, like when we say compatible ideas or harmonious ideas.

[00:11:09] So. That was about consistent. Let’s move on to the next word. In the same sentence we have after imbalance after ballot, Robin hood was consistently pictured as one who stole only from the rich and shared the spoils of his actions with the poor. So what do we have here? We have spoils SP O I L S what is the meaning of spoils?

[00:11:36] Now spoils are valuables seized by violence, especially in war at that time. Doesn’t mean that Robin hood was a violent man, but the spoils he got from the Ridge, he didn’t get by asking he actually stole and he resorted to force. Sometimes. Maybe this word is more when we talk about Wars, but it is proper to use in this context too.

[00:12:02] And now let’s move to the next word. And here in the text, we have, even though the legends portray him as the enemy of the nobility, the Robin hood possessed an unflagging loyalty to the King. So here the legends portray him P O R T R a Y. Al portray is a verb. What does it mean actor or actress portrays someone he or she plays that person in a play or film, but when a writer or artist portray something, he or she writes a description or produces a painting of it.

[00:12:44] And if a film book or television program for traced someone in a certain way, it represents them in that way. And this is the exact meaning we have here. Now, the legends portrayed Robin hood as the enemy of the nobility, the legends represent Robin hood as the enemy of the nobility. And in the same sentence we just used from the text.

[00:13:10] We have the word unflagging. We said Robin hood possessed, an unflagging loyalty to his King. The lighthearted unflagging is spelled U N F L a G G I N G. What is the meaning of unflagging? Does it mean wavering? Does it mean changing? Does it change from time to time, time he was loyal than he was not, or.

[00:13:36] Does unflagging mean unchanging? Well, actually it means something that doesn’t change. If you describe something such as support effort or enthusiasm as unflagging, you mean that it does not stop or get less as time passes. It does not change like unflagging love or guilty, like we have in the example here.

[00:14:03] So that was about unflagging. What about the next word, which is jocular of jocular is spelled J O C U L a R. We were talking about the companions of Robin hood. We talked about little John. We talked about Alan, a Dale, and we talked about friar tuck. And we said in the text, the fat and jocular friar tuck kept everyone amused.

[00:14:31] Now, if you know the story, you know how friar tuck is like. Yes. He was fat. He was jocular jocular. What does that mean? Does it mean that he was kind of boring and he kept always to himself? He never talked to anybody who was kind of bad tempered person or just the opposite? Well, actually it is the opposite of that.

[00:14:53] If you say that someone has a jocular manner, Or he is jocular. You mean that they are cheerful and often make jokes or try to make people laugh. And that was exactly friar tuck in the story. And now we’ll move to the next word ultimate in our text here, we said this story included all the traditional romantic qualities, dangerous secret meetings, disguises, and the ultimate triumph of true love.

[00:15:25] Now, what is the meaning of the ultimate? The ultimate is something that happens after a long series of events. And usually it is the thing that everybody’s waiting for or something like that. So we use ultimate to describe the final result or aim of a long series of events. And of course we can use ultimate in other meanings as well.

[00:15:48] For example, you use ultimate to describe the original source or cause of something like when you say plants are the ultimate source of all food stuffs or you use ultimate to describe the most important or powerful thing of a particular kind. Like when we say my experience as player, coach and manager has prepared me for this ultimate challenge and we can use ultimate to describe the most extreme and unpleasant example of a particular thing.

[00:16:20] Like when you say bringing back the death penalty would be the ultimate abuse of human rights. And finally you use ultimate to describe the best possible example of a particular thing. Like when we say he is the ultimate English gentlemen. So obviously we use ultimate in a lot of contexts and a lot of situations in our context here, we used it to talk about the final result or aim of a long series of events.

[00:16:50] And now let’s move to our next word. And that is figment. In our texts, we said was Robin hood, a living, breathing, human being, or merely the figment of some Balladeers imagination. Now we use this expression all the time. Is he a real, or is he a figment of your imagination or we say, is it real or is it a figment of your imagination?

[00:17:15] Is that real or are you only imagining things? And we use the word figment F I G M E N T. To talk about this. And figment is a fantastic notion invention or fabrication. So in other words, it is not real. It is something merely imagined or made up in the mind. And now for our last word, before we move to the practice that we’re going to do together, we have the words scenario.

[00:17:47] Scenario is spelled S C E N a R I O scenario, but you can hear this word in two different pronunciations. We say scenario and scenario in our texts. We have those who claim him to be real offer an interesting and believable scenario. What is the meaning of scenario here? If you talk about a likely or possible scenario, you are talking about the way in which a situation may develop.

[00:18:18] And of course we use the scenario for films. Like when we say the scenario of a film is a piece of writing that gives an outline of the story, but this is not the scenario we used in our texts here in our texts. We’re talking about a possible scenario for Robin Hood’s believable character. And that is when you talk about the way in which a situation may develop, and it should be logical and believable.

[00:18:45] Like we said, here, believable scenario. Sometimes people may present unbelievable scenarios or unprobable, or even impossible scenarios. So now we’ve talked about all the words we need to talk about in this text. We will test our knowledge of these words in this little practice we’re going to do together.

[00:19:06] I’m going to read a sentence for you and give you the choice between two words to fill in the blank in the sentence. And you will have to decide based on what we just learned, which word works better to complete the sentence. So our first sentence, we have two words, use one of these words to fill in the blank or to complete the sentence.

[00:19:29] The words are figment or scenario. So which word is right. If I want to complete the sentence, the attorney described the figment or scenario leading to the arrest of the accused. Bankrobber the attorney described the figment or scenario leading to the arrest of the accused bankrobber well, if you chose scenario, Congratulations, because that is the correct word to complete the sentence.

[00:20:01] Now it’s not figment because we’re not talking about imagination here. We’re talking about the way in which the situation may develop or actually how it developed here leading to the arrest of the accused. Bankrobber. Now let’s move to the next word. The two words we have here are exploits or spoils, which word should we use in this sentence?

[00:20:25] Stories of Davy Crockett scene increase in number and importance after he died the Alamo. So stories of Davy, Crockett, exploited, or spoiled, seem to me increase in number and importance after he died at the Alamo exploits or spoils. Well, if you think exploits, you are absolutely right. Because we’re talking about his heroic act or feeds or actions, whatever you want to call it.

[00:20:57] So exploit’s is our word here. Now let’s move to the third sentence that we have here. The choice is between endearing or unflagging, the soldiers devotion to their country and their commanders sustain them at Valley forge. So here is it the soldiers endearing devotion. Or is it the soldiers unflagging devotion to their country and their commander sustain them.

[00:21:25] Add Valley forge. Obviously, if you’re thinking about something that doesn’t change and doesn’t become less in time, that is unflagging. So if you chose unflagging, that is the correct word. And now for our next sentence, and we’re going to choose between exploited or endeared. The sentence is her work with the poorest of the poor.

[00:21:48] India or exploited mother Teresa to millions throughout the world. So her work did that endear her to the world. Did that endear mother Theresa to the world or did it exploit mother Teresa to the world? Obviously that made her popular that made everybody know her and love her. So the word we’re searching for is in dear.

[00:22:15] And now for our next sentence and the words we’re going to choose between are figments and spoils. Now the sentence goes, one of the figments or spoils of winning an elective office is being provided a car and driver. So one of the figments or spoils of winning an elective office is being provided a car and driver.

[00:22:42] So which one is it? Is it spoils or figments while we’re talking about getting a car and the driver? So that is a kind of a bonus and a bonus. The word we’re searching for here is spoiled figments. We’re talking about imaginary stuff, but this is not, we’re talking about what you get if you win. So the word we’re searching for here is spoiled.

[00:23:06] And now we will test our understanding in a different way. I will give you a sentence and I will use one of the words in this sentence that we just talked about. And you will have to decide whether the vocabulary word I used in the sentence is correctly used or wrongly used. And maybe we should use another word instead.

[00:23:27] So I’ll start with the very first sentence is the branch of a fig tree referred to as a figment. Is it fig tree. So the branch is figment. Yes or no. Obviously the answer to this one is no, definitely no, because figment has nothing to do with plants. Figment is. A piece of your imagination, not a fig tree, even if it starts with fig, but figment is something else entirely.

[00:23:57] So it is wrong. Maybe here are the branch of a fig tree referred to as the branch of a fig tree. I don’t know. Maybe it has a specific, scientific name I don’t know about, but it’s definitely not figment. And now the next sentence. Do employers want workers who consistently arrive on time for work? And the word here we used is consistently, is it used correctly?

[00:24:22] Do employers want workers who consistently arrive on time for work? The answer is absolutely. Yes, it is. Spot on exactly, exactly the way we want it because employers want workers who arrive on time every day consistently, not just once a month or once a week, they have to be consistent about that. And now for our next sentence, could an army lose several battles.

[00:24:49] He had ultimately win the war. So our word here is ultimate and we used it as an adverb. Ultimately, could an army lose several battles. He had ultimately win the war. Did we use ultimately correctly in the sentence? If your answer is yes. Then congratulations, because that is the correct answer we used ultimately in a correct way in our sentence here, because we’re talking about a long series of events and ultimately after all the series, when the war, so the army can lose some battles that, but ultimately when the war absolutely correct.

[00:25:30] Now the next sentence did Benedict Arnold portray his country during the revolutionary war, did Benedict Arnold portray his country during the revolutionary war. Our word obviously is portray. If you don’t know Benedict Arnold, he was a senior officer at the time of the revolutionary war against the British and Benedict.

[00:25:54] Arnold is obviously American, but at some time he switched sides and fought for the British. So portray the word we’re searching for here. Is it correctly used? Well, The answer is no, because the word we’re looking for here is betray, not portray B E T R a Y. Betrayed his country Benedict Arnold betrayed his country during the revolutionary war.

[00:26:21] So it’s definitely not portray. And our last exercise for today is this sentence is an old broken down car, sometimes called a jocular. The word is jocular. Is it correctly used here? Is an old broken down car sometimes called a jocular. What do you think? Is it used correctly or not? Well, obviously not because Joel, we’re talking about cheerful.

[00:26:49] We’re talking about funny people. We’re not talking about cars and of course we’re not talking about old broken down cars. The word we want here is junk. Not jocular. Is an old broken down car sometimes called a junk. Yes. That’s the word we want? Not jocular. So that brings us to the end of our work power episode.

[00:27:14] I hope you’ve found the episode useful, and I hope you like the idea that we are practicing a little bit together after we finish explaining the words. Don’t forget that you can find the full transcript of this episode. Plus the interactive activities on Quizzlet the downloadable PDF and the quiz and a post on my website.

[00:27:36] And I have added the link to this post in the description of this episode. So please take it the link and do the extra exercises. Take this extra step to make these words you learned here today, permanent in your active vocabulary bank. This was Danny your host saying thank you very much for being with me today. [00:27:57] And I will see you next time.

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