In this History | Events That Changed the World 2 episode, we will continue our exploration of history’s most significant events that changed the history of the world. In this episode, we will talk about these key events from The first civilization in Mesoamerica to the spread of Buddhism.
Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.
welcome to English plus podcast the English we speak and much more. Learn English. expand your knowledge and enjoy through our vocabulary builder novel, grammar, literature, psychology, essential guides and poetry episodes. Support English plus podcast by becoming a patron of the show on Patreon. Use the link in the description to support our podcast and to help our free e learning journey continue. Welcome to a new episode that talks about the events that changed the history of the world. In the earlier episode, we talked about the first 10 events that changed the history of the world, from the man’s discovery of the use of fire to the Iron Age, and today we will talk about the next 10 events that changed the history of the world. We will talk about the first civilization in Middle America, the emergence of Greek culture, the first use of coin the country ization of the Torah, the tiger of chain, the invention of concrete and how it revolutionized engineering connecting east to west along the Silk Road, the birth of the Roman Empire, the foundation of Christianity and the spread of Buddhism. So, let’s start with the very first event, the first civilization in Mesoamerica. It happened around 1200 BC. As of 1200 BC, the western hemispheres first civilization, the olmecs Society had formed as villages on the banks of river near present day Veracruz called olmec, or dwellers in the land of rubber. Due to the abundance of rubber trees in the area. They were dependent on corn, the ample corn harvests from the area supported olmec merchants, artisans and rulers, planting and seasonal activities were governed by an olmec calendar based on lunar months. toiling in the fields, peasants erected monuments and public projects in ceremonial complexes, which served as the center of the civilization. The complexes featured earthern pyramids, walled plazas, stone temples, and bowl courts for games of ritual significance. They also sculpted enormous stern faced heads thought to represent olmec rulers, scribes kept track of events using pictographs called glyphs, the first known alphabet in the Americas, and yet to be deciphered. The olmec civilization regarded as Mesoamerica has root culture. It ended around 400 BC, but its technical and intellectual achievements, as well as manufactured goods were exported via extensive trade networks. The olmec influenced people throughout the region, especially the Maya, who during the Classic period, from 250 ad to 900 ad Draw heavily from olmec culture and for millennia afterward, after this, we have the next big event and that is the emergence of Greek culture, which happened around 750 BC. Homer, a blind poet who lived around 750 BC, created the greatest epics of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad and the Odyssey, passed down orally for generations. His stories were among the first Greek works to be written down. The story of Odysseus homers hero in an account of the Trojan wars, which in Greek mythology were said to have been caused by a spat between goddesses Athena, Hara, and Aphrodite in their pages. These epics recount heroic deeds and tragic events, but they also explore moral, ethical and psychological themes with remarkable subtlety. They record a way of life not far removed from that of Greek society. In Homer’s time, the Iliad and the Odyssey influenced much of Greek culture, including its literature, education, and an era of enormous creativity around 480 bc in Athens, Sophocles, europese and Aristophanes, pen plays that often commented on the contemporary political situation, while exploring themes of power, love and betrayal. The work of philosophers Socrates and Plato and historian Thucydides elucidated the ideas and events of Greek civilization and democracy. This era coincided with the rise of democracy, this new form of government in which citizens elect their leaders, is without a doubt the Greeks greatest legacy and an influence upon the founding fathers and the United States Constitution. And now for the next big event that changed the history of the world. And that was the first use of coins and then happened around 650 BC. Around 650 bc the first coinage was struck by the kingdom of Lydia located in western Anatolia, along the backless river where gold was plentiful metal currencies in the form of gold bars, copper ingots, lumps of bronze, and even small farming implements had existed in parts of the globe for millennia, but the lydians were the first to stamp their small being shaped pieces of golden silver alloy known as electrum, with an insignia of their issuing authority. This guaranteed them and established value, making them the world’s first true coins. The lydians trading partners the Greeks quickly recognized the advantages of this practice. By the end of the sixth century BC. They were minting silver coins in colonies throughout the Mediterranean, except for Sparta. Were owning silver or gold was unlawful Persian India and China soon followed suit, establishing precious metals as the accepted measure of value across Eurasia. After coins were brought to Rome around 347 BC, banks started to replace stores in the forum, and public marketplace. Early coins made of precious metals had actual value and were often reissued when a new leader came into power in order to bear his image. By contrast, today’s coins are no longer manufactured from gold or silver, and some, like the American Penny, cost more to produce than they are worth. And now for the next big event that changed the history of the world. And that is the canonization of the Torah that happened in 444 BC. The core beliefs of Judaism are founded in the laws that were revealed to the Prophet Moses on Mount Sinai, the belief in one God who controls history and guarantees that virtue is rewarded and wickedness is punished, established Judaism as a monotheistic religion and separated it from the polytheistic religions of the ancient world. scholars and believers dispute whether Moses himself or later writers recorded the Jewish law into the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Torah. But after six centuries of written compilations, and several more of oral traditions, a temple scribe named Ezra was given the authority in 444 bc to proclaim the Torah the official law of Judah, a vassal state of the canid Empire, the first Persian Empire in the centuries before ezras proclamation, the Israelites as the Hebrews came to be known, suffered military defeats and forced diasporas and enslavement throughout they maintain the sense of faith and community in large part during To the teachings of Moses, and a series of later prophets whose teachings appear in later parts of the Hebrew Bible, the canonization of the Torah began centuries of interpretation and reinterpretation of every word it contained, it would go on to profoundly influenced the morals and values of countless Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike. And now for the next big event that affected the history of the world. And that happened when the tiger of chin unified China. It happened in 221 BC, the first emperor of the United China, Chen Shi huangdi, did far more than provide his name to his country. After assuming the throne of the state of chin. In 246 bc at the age of 13. The young king led his armies to defeat all rival states and unify them into China’s first Empire. His ferocity gained him the nickname Tiger of chin. He said to work real arranging the political and social structure with the king as its center. He organized the army codified law. established standards for weights measures a system of writing and coinage, and built new roads, canals, and irrigation systems throughout the Empire, including consolidating and enlarging a series of walls into what we now call the Great Wall of China. However, chin was viewed as a tyrannical desperate by the succeeding Han Dynasty, from 206 bc to 220 ad, they rejected what they saw as his illegitimate wielding of power. Ironically, they still route through chin centralized political institutions, but legitimize their power by establishing a bureaucracy of officials modeled on Confucian notions of service to a ruler with the mandate of heaven, tyrannical or not, the tiger of chain successfully centralized power expanded territory and unified China. Thousands of years later, China is still a global economic powerhouse, and the most populous nation in the world. And now the next event that affected the history of the world is the invention of concrete, which revolutionized engineering, and then happened in 200 BC. The Roman development of concrete around 200 bc revolutionize civil engineering by lowering costs of construction, and allowing forms not strictly dependent on the limitations of quarried stone, made out of a mixture of volcanic ash, lime, rubble and water. The concrete had a pliable nature that allowed curved architectural forms, such as the volt and dome characteristic of many Roman buildings, including the Colosseum and the Pantheon. These buildings reflected the Romans belief in the importance of taking part in civic life. from public spectacles to religious festivals, the waterproof quality of concrete made it essential in other feats of engineering, such as the aqueducts, bridges, harbours, and bath houses of the Roman world. The engineers of the Empire’s aqueducts used rounded arches to distribute the weight and gravity to carry the water into cities, where lead pipes funneled into fountains and public baths. Concrete was also employed in the Empire’s paved roads, which spent 50,000 miles around the Mediterranean, the via Appia. Rome’s first road, eventually stretched from Rome to the port city of Brindisi, many buildings, aqueducts, and part of the via Appia are still visible throughout what was once the Roman Empire, a testament to the genius of Roman concrete and engineering. And now for the big event, which happened also around 200 bc and that is Connecting east to west along the Silk Road, the fabled Silk Road, a network of footpaths and caravan trails across rugged mountains and barren lands stretched from China to India and the Mediterranean as early as the second century BC, and was important in the development of Eurasian culture. In about 138 BC, Chinese Emperor Han booty faced a dilemma that has plagued China through much of his territory, being graded by peoples from the north and west. This time, it was a nomadic people cold, young new hung booty send Zong chin, a palace attendant as an envoy to make an alliance with another group the ways he who disliked his young new because the nomads had killed the wizzy king. The trip was not a diplomatic success. Chan was captured by these young new and imprisoned for a decade when he escaped He made his way to bactria northwest of India, where the new UAC King was not interested in an alliance. But what gn did bring back was valuable information about the lands west of China. For instance, spotting Chinese goods for sale in bactria. He learned they had traveled there via Bengo. Clearly, overland trade with the West was possible. Emperor Han booty used this knowledge to set up trade routes, which grew over time into the immense network of East West caravan passages known as the Silk Road, far more than silk traveled on the road. But the precious fabric was an important Chinese commodity. Silk spread from China to India, where it became highly prized as it also did when it spread to Persia, Mesopotamia and the Roman Empire. East Asian traders brought spices including cinnamon cloves nutmeg and ginger to the west, where they were used as flavorings, drugs, perfumes and aphrodisiacs. India traded pepper pearls, sesame oil, textiles, coral, and ivory along the road. Central Asian nations sent horses and Jade back to China, while Mediterranean merchants traded wool, gold, silver gems, glassware, olive oil and wine. religions, including Buddhism, Christianity and Islam also traveled these roots. Many Indian merchants were Buddhists and spread their religion to the cities they visited, including summer camp and bahara in modern Uzbekistan, and Kashgar in China, beginning in the first or second century AD. Beginning in the first or second century, Christian missionaries, including the Apostle Paul disseminated the gospel through the Near East and North Africa via the route later starting in the seventh century AD. Arab Muslims traveled to China along the Silk Road to spread Islam. Along with goods and religions, smallpox, measles, and bubonic plague also proliferated along the route. Both Han China and Agustin Rome was threatened by epidemics in the second and third centuries. smallpox in particular, killed millions of Romans during the plague of anti ninus from 165 to 180 ad. The exchange continued well into the 14th century. And now looking back, it is clear the Silk Road was the first example of globalization. And now for the next big event, and that is the birth of the Roman Empire in 27 BC. Gaius Octavius was the great nephew of Julius Caesar and his adopted son and personal heir, claiming his inheritance was a 13 year ordeal involving civil wars and sticky Alliance. But in 27 BC, the Roman senate bestowed Octavius the name Augustus, meaning revered personage known as Caesar Augustus. He spent the next four decades sculpting the role of the Roman Emperor, adding powers and reforming the constitution until he became an effect, a dictator. Augustus was the first in a long line of Roman emperors during 45 years of unopposed rule, he overhauled the workings of Roman government reorganize the military, installed a fire brigade and a police force in the city of Rome, and expanded the boundaries of the Roman Empire to include much of Europe, North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Augustus ushered in the Pax Romana, or Roman peace, an era characterized by increased law, trade, communication and relative prosperity, which he used to commissioned monuments, public buildings, temples and roads throughout the Empire. The Roman Empire was the first superpower stretching from Europe and Africa to Asia and the Middle East. The Empire’s ability to assimilate so many cultures into its own was an essential part of its success. And its legacy is part of cultures the world over, including our own, and now for the next big event, and that is the foundation of Christianity. The Jewish preacher Jesus of Nazareth, began his public ministry in the Roman province of Palestine. Around 29 ad, Palestine was rife with tensions between Gentiles and Jews, Roman overlords and subjects and among various sects of Judaism itself. Though a man of peace, Jesus gathered large crowds with his preaching, and Roman governors and Jewish priests viewed any one capable of attracting such crowds Politically dangerous, Jesus was never charged with any serious legal offence in his native region Galilee. But when he entered Jerusalem to observe Passover, and was greeted by a mass of admirers, even his message of compassion became a potent of conflict. He was crucified as an agitator by Roman authorities around 30 ad. The first followers of Jesus were Jews, his message of salvation, that anyone who believed in his teachings of love, forgiveness and universal brotherhood would be granted universal life, also had considerable appear to pagans in Syria and Asia Minor. His message spread throughout the Roman Empire and into Iran and Mesopotamia. Believers like soul of Tarsus, later called Paul traveled far, spreading Jesus teachings. these teachings are the basis of Christianity and have survived in the New Testament and Some of the most powerful cultural and political forces in history. And now for our last event for this episode, and that is the spread of Buddhism. Buddhism had been gaining in popularity since the Buddha founded it in northern India in the sixth century BC, said to be born into a prominent family, Siddhartha Gautama renounced his wealth and lived as an ascetic, wandering for six years. It was while sitting under the Bodhi tree for 49 days that he became the Buddha or enlightened one. through meditation, he determined that suffering stemmed from desire, and the way to avoid desire was through the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. These doctrines or Dharma, promulgated the middle way that a moderate reflective, disciplined lifestyle would eventually lead to detachment from material desires. liberation from the cycle of rebirth. attainment of spiritual enlightenment, or Nirvana. Han Emperor Mindy, an early Buddhist, erected the first Buddhist temple in China in 68. AD, called the Whitehorse temple nine miles east of the city of luyang. It is likely that at first, only foreign merchants and missionaries used the temple since Confucianism was the primary mode of thought in China at the time. These foreigners however, were permitted to live and preach from enclaves in several cities, and the number of Buddhist converts gradually grew. Today, there are an estimated 350 million Buddhists around the world. So these were the 10 events that changed the world for this episode.
20:47 Stay tuned because in the next episode, we will talk about the next 10 events that changed the world in our events that changed the world series. This is Danny, your host, thank you very much for listening to the episode. sewed and I will see you next time.