Everyone knows the most common way to make singular words plural in English; all you need is just to add an -s, but does it work with all nouns in English. How about bus? Can you say buss is the plural form of bus? But that is not all, there is a lot to regular and irregular plurals than meets the eye. We have nouns that do not change at all and we have other words that change dramatically, besides the cases where we need to decide whether an -s is enough to make plurals or an -es is required.

Listen to the podcast and learn all about it and while you are listening, you can check the information below or keep it for later to use as a reference.

Regular and Irregular Plurals Podcast

Regular and Irregular Plurals Reference Questions

Which nouns are made plural by adding a final -s to?

Most English nouns are. For example, song — songs

Which nouns are made plural by adding a final -es to?

nouns that end in -sh, –ch, -s, -z, and -x.
For example, box —boxes

When do we change -y into -ies in plural?

We do that when the -y is preceded by a consonant.
For example, baby — babies.
However, if the -y is precede by a vowel, we just add an -s.
For example, boy — boys.

Which nouns have irregular plurals that do not end with an -s?

man — men
woman — women
child — children
ox — oxen
foot — feet
goose — geese
tooth — teeth
mouse — mice
louse — lice

Some nouns that end in -o add -es to form the plural.

echoes | potatoes | tomatoes | heroes

Some nouns that end in -o add -s to form the plural.

autos | ghettos | kangaroos | kilos | memos | photos | pianos | radios | solos | sopranos | studios | tattoos | videos

Some nouns that end in -o add either -es or -s to form the plural. (with -es being the more usual plural form).

mementoes/s | mosquitoes/s | tornadoes/s | volcanoes/s | zeroes/s

Some nouns that end in -f or -fe are changed to -ves to form the plural.

calf — calves | half — halves | knife — knives|leaf — leaves | life — lives | loaf — loaves | self — selves | shelf — shelves | thief — thieves | wolf — wolves | scarf — scarves/scarfs

Some nouns that end in -f simply add -s to form the plural.

belief — beliefs | chief — chiefs | cliff — cliffs | roof — roofs

Some nouns have the same singular and plural form.

deer | fish | means | offspring | series | sheep | shrimp | species

Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.

– criterion — criteria | phenomenon — phenomena
– cactus — cacti | fungus — fungi | nucleus — nuclei | stimulus — stimuli | syllabus — syllabi
– formula — formulae/formulas | vertebra — vertebrae
– appendix — appendices/appendixes | index — indices/indexes
– analysis — analyses | basis — bases | crisis — crises | hypothesis — hypotheses| oasis — oases | parenthesis — parentheses | thesis — theses
– bacterium — bacteria | curriculum — curricula | datum — | medium — media | memorandum — memoranda

Regular and Irregular Plurals Quiz

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This