This week, we will be talking about the arts and literature. We will discuss the different types of art, from literature to fine arts and performing arts, we will learn about artists and some details about literature.

We talked in episode 140 about the different types of arts, from literature to fine arts and perfoming arts, so check this episode out if you like.

In this episode, we will focus on artists and some details about literature, which we can use when we want to talk about literature.

Episode 141 – Artists and Literature

Episode 141 – Artists and Literature Transcript

Danny:

Hello and welcome to Perfect English with Danny. In this episode, we will continue talking about the arts and literature. If you haven’t had the chance to listen to the previous episode, it is episode 140, and we talked about the arts from literature to fine arts and performing arts. We talked about novels, biographies, sculpture, architecture, theater, concerts and more. So, if you would like to learn about these, check out episode 140. In this episode we will continue talking about our theme, and we will talk about types of art and artists and we will talk in more details about literature. So, without further ado, let’s get to it.

Hi Ben. Where do you think we should start today?

Ben:

I think we should start talking about the names of the people who are involved in art, or in other words, the artists. You know, because people usually confuse words that refer to the art form with words that refer to the artist.

Danny:

I think you’re right. Let’s start with sculpture. We talked in the last episode about sculpture as an art form, but what about the people who practice that form of art? What do we call them?

Ben:

The usual answer is to add -er to the verb and you get yourself a noun that refers to the person who does it, but -er is not always the right answer, sometimes we add an -or instead.

Danny:

That’s right. For example, when we talk about painting, the verb is paint and the artist who paints is called painter. PAINTER, but in our case with sculpture, we don’t add an -er, we add an -or. Sculpture involves a person who sculpts something, and we call this artist sculptor, SCULPTOR. And a sculptor is an artist who creates statues.

Ben:

And sculptor in English is:

Portuguese: escultor

Spanish: escultor

French: sculpteur

German: Bildhauer

Italian: scultore

Arabic: نحّات

Danny:

Great! Now one other kind of fine art we didn’t talk about yesterday is ceramics, you know, like making pots, bowls, and stuff like that. What do you think we call the person who does that?

Ben:

Are we talking about pottery here?

Danny:

Yes, we are.

Ben:

So, the word you’re looking for here is potter, POTTER. We call the person who makes pots a potter, like in Harry Potter.

Danny:

That’s right, and did you know that we can say to throw a pot and that means to make a pot by shaping clay as it turns around on a special wheel, which we obviously call the potter’s wheel.

Ben:

Oh, I just know that potters make pots, but I didn’t know that we call this part of the process to throw a pot. You know I tried it a couple of times, but the results were disastrous. I am not skilled in handicrafts at all.

Danny:

Neither am I; I didn’t try to throw a pot or anything like that, but I tried different things, and I don’t think my talents lie anywhere near handicrafts.

Ben:

So, our word here is potter:

Portuguese: oleira

Spanish: alfarero

French: potier

German: Töpfer

Italian: vasaio

Arabic: خزّاف

Danny:

All right, we also talked last time about architecture, and we said that the person who does this kind of work, designs buildings, and here is an example why you shouldn’t always follow the additional -er rule because we cannot say architecturer here; there is no word like that in English. The person or the artist who designs buildings is called an architect.

Ben:

Yes, the word is architect:

Portuguese: arquiteto

Spanish: arquitecto

French: architecte

German: Architekt

Italian: architetto

Arabic: مهندس معماري

Danny:

Now we know that the artist who paints is called a painter, but what about the kind of paintings a painter draws?

Ben:

What about that?

Danny:

What’s your favorite type of paintings? Do you like portraits, landscapes, still life or abstract paintings?

Ben:

Oh, I see. I think I like portraits the most because capturing a moment in a person’s life tells you a lot about that person, especially when the artist adds his or her touch to that.

Danny:

Well, I personally like portrait photography more than portrait painting because it feels more spontaneous. In portrait painting, the artist may exaggerate a feature or ignore a feature and the model is actually posing for the painting, so it is not that spontaneous, while in photography, a photographer can really capture a moment in time that is unique and expressive. But I do like portrait painting the most, anyway. I like it when the subject of the painting is a human being.

Ben:

You know, maybe, we should talk a little about these different types. I am not sure everybody knows the difference between them.

Danny:

You’re right. Well, a portrait is a painting of a person and the focus is usually on the face of that person more than anything else, but it can be a painting of the whole body and it is still called a portrait.

Ben:

And portrait is:

Portuguese: retrato

Spanish: retrato

French: portrait

German: Porträt

Italian: ritratto

Arabic: صورة

Danny:

We also have landscape, which is a painting of a scene in the countryside usually featuring nature.

Ben:

Yeah and landscape is:

Portuguese: paisagem

Spanish: paisaje

French: paysage

German: Landschaft

Italian: paesaggio

Arabic: منظر طبيعي

Danny:

And there is the still life, which is a painting of a set of objects that do not move, usually fruit or flowers.

Ben:

Yep, and still life is:

Portuguese: natureza morta

Spanish: naturaleza muerta

French: nature morte

German: Stillleben

Italian: natura morta

Arabic: طبيعة صامتة

Danny:

And when we talk about paintings, we may talk about an original painting, which is one that is produced by the painter him/herself rather than a copy or a reproduction of the painting.

Ben:

Ok. So, original is:

Portuguese: original

Spanish: original

French: original

German: ursprünglich

Italian: originale

Arabic: أصلي

And reproduction in this context means:

Portuguese: reprodução

Spanish: reproducción

French: reproduction

German: Fortpflanzung

Italian: riproduzione

Arabic:  نسخة

Danny:

All right, let’s move on to talk about literature now. You were talking last time about J.K Rowling and Harry potter. Well, J.K. Rowling is definitely a writer, which is a word we can use for all kind of writers, but we have special words for writers of poetry and writers of novels. For example, J.K. Rowling is a novelist. It is pretty obvious that a novelist is a writer who writes novels. And for poetry, we call the writer who writes poetry a poet, and the individual things he/she writes are called poems. 

Ben:

All right, so let’s get these two words translated first:

A novelist is:

Portuguese: romancista

Spanish: novelista

French: romancier

German: Romanschriftsteller

Italian: scrittore

Arabic: روائي

And a poet is:

Brazilian Portuguese: poeta

European Spanish: poeta

French: poète

German: Dichter

Italian: poeta

Arabic: شاعر

Danny:

And as for Harry Potter novels, we call them a series of novels. A series of novels is several novels that deal with the same subject or tell stories about the same characters. In many cases, the story continues from one book to the next, so that you need to read the whole series, like The Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, The Hunger Games, etc.

Ben:

And novels or stories in general can be set in a special place at a special time in the past, present or future, and we call this the setting of the story.

Danny:

Yes, the setting of the story, which may be a movie, a novel or even a short story, is when and where the story takes place.

Ben:

And some novels or books sell very well and they make it to the bestseller list.

Danny:

Yes, for example all Harry Potter books, or novels have been bestsellers. And sometimes books become bestsellers despite all what the critics say about them.

Ben:

Well, I have a question here. When we say critic, do we mean people who say bad things or give negative opinions all the time?

Danny:

Not really. A critic is a person who judges whether something is good or bad, so part of his/her job is to say if something is good as well as if it is bad. Now, you might have heard that before, the critically acclaimed novel, film, or book. That means the critics said positive things about the work, or in simpler words, they liked it. But saying that, I have to mention that some works are ruined by some tough critics, who may not do this on purpose, but they have their standards and they force every writer to live up to their standards. In many cases, the work of art dies right there at the table of the critic, but luckily in the age of the internet, you can still get your work of art to people and let people be the judge of that. In a few cases, people kind of conquered the will of the critics and made some books that got poor reviews bestsellers. 

Ben:

But that is also a problem because advertisement and marketing plays a big role in bringing your work to the audience, and nowadays, if you want to launch a book for example, you need a substantial budget for marketing, and a lot of time dedicated for marketing to give this book a chance of success. Don’t get me wrong, but I don’t think it’s much better today. In the past, the fate of your book was in the hands of a few complicated fellows, but now it is a business; you are supposed to sell your book online as if you’re selling a watch or a lamp.

Danny:

That’s right, time’s changed, my friend, and you have to roll with it. At least, now your fate is more into your own hands than it is in the hands of people who do not care about you at all.

Ben:

Well, you have a point, I’ll give you that. So, the word is critic, and it is:

Portuguese: crítico

Spanish: crítico

French: critique

German: Kritiker

Italian: critico

Arabic: ناقد

Danny:

Also, when we talk about books and critics, we say that a book got some good or bad reviews, and reviews usually talk about the plot and characters. The plot is the events that form the main story of a book, film, or play. Critics may say the plot was strong, or weak, or predictable, which means the book was boring.

Ben:

That makes sense. If there are no twists or surprises, a book or a movie is boring.

Danny:

That’s right and critics can also talk about the characters; they usually say the characters were believable or not very realistic.

Ben:

But since stories are mostly fictional, why is it important for the characters to be realistic?

Danny:

Well, maybe, you’re talking about the word real. Well, the characters do not have to be real at all; they can be fictional that are figments of the writer’s imagination. That’s fine, but the audience need to believe these characters; the characters need to be believable, even if you are talking about a wizard, like Harry Potter. We all know that the things Harry can do are not real, we accept that it is fiction, but after we accept the fact that the character can cast spells and do extraordinary things, we need to believe this character.

Ben:

I don’t get it. How can Harry Potter be realistic; he’s a wizard.

Danny:

All right, what would you say if Harry was able to control time like Dr. Strange, and by doing that he returned to the time when his parents were murdered and he averted the tragedy, brought his parents back to life and used their help to fight Voldemort, and after he got his parents back, he figured out a way to control Thor’s hammer and he killed the snake Nagini with it, then he suited up in Iron Man’s suit and set out to kill Voldemort once and for all.

Ben:

Ok, ok I get. That will make it unbelievable and unrealistic.

Danny:

There you go. Now, when books are done after editing and proofreading is done, they are ready for publication, which means a copy of a printed work offered for distribution.

Ben:

Yes, the word here is publication; it is:

Portuguese: publicação

Spanish: publicación

French: publication

German: Veröffentlichung

Italian: pubblicazione

Arabic: منشور

Danny:

Of course, nowadays, publications are available both in print and digital as ebooks, for example. A good thing about ebooks is that you can usually read a passage from the book, which might help you decide whether to buy the book.

Ben:

Yes, that’s very useful, but I liked it better when we used to go to bookshops flip through the pages of novels and books of all kinds and choose the ones we want to spend the rest of our weekend with.

Danny:

Yeah, that sounds really romantic, and to be honest, it is. Unfortunately, many of these bookstores are closing because people are buying more ebooks than old-fashioned yellow-paged musty books.  

Ben:

What a shame! I know that most young people who are listening to us will be laughing by now, but they are missing a lot of love in the pages of real books.

Danny:

Yeah, but come on, ebooks made it easy for all people around the world to get access to huge libraries that were off-limits before, so it is a crucial advantage to spread knowledge all around the world.

Ben:

Yeah, you’re right.

Danny:

So, I guess that will be all for today. Thank you, Ben, for helping me out in this episode. Thank you all for listening to another episode form Perfect English with Danny. Don’t forget, in the link you can find in the description of the episode, you can find the full transcript of this episode, the full translations of the keywords into 62 languages, and interactive and downloadable activities you can use to improve your vocabulary. We will meet on Friday for a story to have some fun while we are learning English in context. This is Danny and Ben your hosts saying goodbye for now and we’ll see you again soon.

Episode 141 – sculptor, potter, architect Translations (62 Languages)

Englishsculptorpotterarchitect
Frenchsculpteurpotierarchitecte
Italianscultorevasaioarchitetto
Spanishescultoralfareroarquitecto
GermanBildhauerTöpferArchitekt
Portugueseescultoroleiroarquiteto
Chinese雕塑家制陶工人建筑师
Japanese彫刻師陶芸家建築家
Korean조각가도공건축가
Arabicنحاتخزافمهندس معماري
Afrikaansbeeldhouerpottebakkerargitek
albanianskulptorpoçararkitekt
Azerbaijaniheykəltəraşdulusmemar
Basqueeskultoreakontzigilearkitektoak
Bengaliভাস্করকুলালস্থপতি
Belarusianскульптарганчарархітэктар
Bulgarianскулпторгрънчарархитект
Catalanescultorterrisserarquitecte
Croatiankiparlončararhitekt
Czechsochařhrnčířarchitekt
Danishbilledhuggerpottemagerarkitekt
Dutchbeeldhouwerpottenbakkerarchitect
Esperantoskulptistopotfaristoarkitekto
Estonianskulptorpottsepparhitekt
Filipinoiskultormanggagawa ng palayokarkitekto
Finnishkuvanveistäjäsavenvalajaarkkitehti
Galicianescultoroleiroarquitecto
Georgianმოქანდაკეpotterარქიტექტორი
Greekγλύπτηςαγγειοπλάστηςαρχιτέκτων
Gujaratiશિલ્પીકુંભારઆર્કિટેક્ટ
Haitian CreolesculpteurPotterachitèk
Hebrewפַּסָלפוטראדריכל
Hindiसंगतराशकुम्हारवास्तुकार
Hungarianszobrászfazekasépítészmérnök
Icelandicmyndhöggvarileirkerasmiðurarkitekt
Indonesianpengukirtukang potarsitek
Irishdealbhóirpotterailtire
Kannadaಶಿಲ್ಪಿಪಾಟರ್ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪಿ
Latincælatorislagunculam figulifaber
Latvianskulptorspodnieksarhitekts
Lithuanianskulptoriuspuodžiusarchitektas
Macedonianскулпторгрнчаротархитект
Malaypemahatpotterarkitek
MalteseiskulturPotterperit
Norwegianskulptørpotterarkitekt
Persianمجسمه سازکوزه گرمعمار
Polishrzeźbiarzgarncarzarchitekt
Romaniansculptorolararhitect
Russianскульпторгончарархитектор
Serbianвајаргрнчарархитекта
Slovaksochárhrnčiararchitekt
Sloveniankiparpotterarhitekt
Swahilimchongajipottermbunifu
Swedishskulptörkrukmakarearkitekt
Tamilசிற்பிபாட்டர்கட்டட வடிவமைப்பாளர்
Teluguశిల్పికుమ్మరివాస్తుశిల్పి
Thaiประติมากรช่างปั้นสถาปนิก
Turkishheykeltraşçömlekçimimar
Ukranianскульпторгончарархітектор
Urduمورتکارپوٹرمعمار
Vietnamesenhà điêu khắcpotterkiến trúc sư
Welshcerflunyddcrochenyddpensaer
Yiddishסקולפּטאָרטעפּעראַרכיטעקט

Episode 141 – portrait, landscape, still life, original, reproduction Translations (62 Languages)

Englishportraitlandscapestill lifeoriginalreproduction
Frenchportraitpaysagenature morteoriginalla reproduction
Italianritrattopaesaggionatura mortaoriginaleriproduzione
Spanishretratopaisajenaturaleza muertaoriginalreproducción
GermanPorträtLandschaftStilllebenOriginalReproduktion
Portugueseretratopanoramanatureza mortaoriginalreprodução
Chinese肖像景观静物原版的再生产
Japanese肖像画ランドスケープ静物元の再生
Korean초상화경치정물기발한생식
Arabicصورةالمناظر الطبيعيهباق على قيد الحياةأصلياستنساخ
Afrikaansportretlandskapstilleweoorspronklikevoortplanting
albanianportretpeizazhjetë e qetëorigjinalriprodhim
Azerbaijaniportretmənzərənatürmortorijinalreproduksiya
Basqueerretratupaisaiahilakjatorrizkougalketa
Bengaliপ্রতিকৃতিভূদৃশ্যষ্টীল লাইফমূলপ্রতিলিপি
Belarusianпартрэтпейзажнацюрмортарыгіналпрайграванне
Bulgarianпортретпейзажнатюрморторигиналрепродукция
Catalanretratpaisatgenatura mortaoriginalreproducció
Croatianportretpejzažmrtva prirodaizvornikreprodukcija
Czechportrétkrajinastálý životoriginálreprodukce
Danishportrætlandskabstillebenoriginalreproduktion
Dutchportretlandschapstillevenorigineelreproduktie
Esperantoportretopejzaĝoankoraŭ vivooriginalareproduktaĵo
Estonianportreemaastiknatüürmortoriginaalreproduktsioon
Filipinolarawantanawinstill lifeorihinalpagpaparami
Finnishmuotokuvamaisemaasetelmaalkuperäinenjäljentäminen
GalicianretratopaisaxeBodegónorixinalreprodución
Georgianპორტრეტილანდშაფტისჯერ კიდევ ცოცხალიორიგინალურირეპროდუქცია
Greekπορτρέτοτοπίονεκρή φύσηπρωτότυποαναπαραγωγή
Gujaratiપોટ્રેટલેન્ડસ્કેપહજુ પણ જીવનમૂળપ્રજનન
Haitian Creolepòtrèjaden flèlavi toujouorijinalrepwodiksyon
Hebrewדיוקןנוףדוֹמֵםמקורירבייה
Hindiचित्रपरिदृश्यस्थिर जीवनमूलप्रजनन
Hungarianportrétájképcsendéleteredetireprodukció
Icelandicmyndlandslagenn lífupprunalegafjölgun
Indonesianpotretpemandanganmasih hidupaslireproduksi
Irishportráidtírdhreachábhar Neamhbheobunaidhatáirgeadh
Kannadaಭಾವಚಿತ್ರಭೂದೃಶ್ಯದಅಚರ ಜೀವಮೂಲಸಂತಾನೋತ್ಪತ್ತಿ
LatineffigiesOrbis Terrarumadhuc vivereoriginalReproductio
LatvianportretsainavaKlusā dabaoriģinālsreprodukcija
Lithuanianportretaskraštovaizdisnatiurmortasoriginalusreprodukcija
MacedonianпортретпејзажМртва природаоригиналниотрепродукција
Malaypotretlandskapkehidupan masihasalpembiakan
Malteseritrattpajsaġġħajja xortaoriġinaliriproduzzjoni
Norwegianportrettlandskapstillebenopprinneligreproduksjon
Persianپرترهچشم اندازتصاویر اشیاء بی جاناصلیتولید مثل
Polishportretkrajobrazmartwa naturaoryginalnyreprodukcja
Romanianportretpeisajnatură moartăoriginalreproducere
Russianпортретпейзажнатюрморторигиналвоспроизведение
SerbianпортретпејзажМртва природаоригиналанрепродукција
Slovakportrétkrajinazátišieoriginálrozmnožovanie
Slovenianportretpokrajinamirno zivljenjeprvotnirazmnoževanje
Swahilipichamazingirabado maishaawaliuzazi
Swedishporträttlandskapfortfarande livoriginal-fortplantning
Tamilஉருவப்படம்இயற்கைஇன்னும் வாழ்க்கைஅசல்இனப்பெருக்கம்
Teluguచిత్తరువుప్రకృతి దృశ్యంఇప్పటికీ జీవితంఅసలుపునరుత్పత్తి
Thaiภาพเหมือนภูมิประเทศยังมีชีวิตอยู่เป็นต้นฉบับการทำสำเนา
Turkishportrepeyzajnatürmortorijinalüreme
UkranianпортретпейзажНатюрморторигіналвідтворення
Urduپورٹریٹزمین کی تزئینجامد زندگیاصلپنروتپادن
VietnameseChân dungphong cảnhtĩnh vậtnguyênsinh sản
WelshportreadtirweddBywyd llonyddgwreiddiolatgynhyrchu
Yiddishפּאָרטרעטלאַנדשאַפטנאָך לעבןאָריגינעלרעפּראָדוקציע

Episode 141 – novelist, critic, character, publication Translations (62 Languages)

Englishnovelistcriticcharacterpublication
Frenchromanciercritiquepersonnagepublication
Italianromanzierecriticopersonaggiopubblicazione
Spanishnovelistacríticopersonajepublicación
GermanRomanschriftstellerKritikerCharakterVeröffentlichung
Portugueseromancistacríticopersonagempublicação
Chinese小说家评论家字符出版物
Japanese小説家評論家キャラクター出版
Korean소설가비평가캐릭터출판
Arabicالروائيالناقدشخصيةمنشور
Afrikaansromanskrywerkritikuskarakterpublikasie
albanianromancierkritikkarakterpublikim
Azerbaijaniromançıtənqidçicharacternəşr
Basquenobelagilekritikariapertsonaiaargitalpen
Bengaliঔপন্যাসিকসমালোচকচরিত্রপ্রকাশন
Belarusianраманісткрытыкхарактарпублікацыя
Bulgarianроманисткритикхарактерпубликация
Catalannovel·listacríticpersonatgepublicació
Croatianromanopisackritičarlikpublikacija
Czechromanopiseckritikcharaktervydání
DanishromanforfatterkritikerKarakteroffentliggørelse
Dutchromanschrijvercriticuskarakterpublicatie
Esperantoromanverkistokritikistokarakteropublikigo
Estonianromaanikirjanikkriitikiseloomavaldamine
Filipinonobelistakritikopagkataopaglalathala
Finnishromaanikirjailijakriitikkomerkkijulkaisu
Galiciannovelistacríticocarácterpublicación
Georgianნოველისტიკრიტიკოსიხასიათიგამოცემა
Greekμυθιστοριογράφοςκριτικόςχαρακτήραςδημοσίευση
Gujaratiનવલકથાકારવિવેચકપાત્રપ્રકાશન
Haitian Creoleromansyekritikpèsonajpiblikasyon
Hebrewהסופרמבקראופיפרסום
Hindiउपन्यासकारआलोचकचरित्रप्रकाशन
Hungarianregényírókritikuskarakterkiadvány
Icelandicrithöfundurinngagnrýnandieðlibirting
Indonesiannovelispengkritikkarakterpublikasi
Irishúrscéalaíléirmheastóircarachtarfoilseachán
Kannadaಕಾದಂಬರಿಕಾರವಿಮರ್ಶಕಪಾತ್ರಪ್ರಕಟಣೆಯ
LatinFABULATORcriticusingeniumpublication
Latvianromānistskritiķisraksturspublicēšana
Lithuanianromanų rašytojaskritikascharakterisleidinys
Macedonianромансиеркритичаркарактеробјавување
Malaypenulis novelpengkritikwatakpenerbitan
Malteserumanzierkritikukarattrupubblikazzjoni
NorwegianForfatterkritiskkarakterutgivelse
Persianرمان نویسمنتقدشخصیتانتشار
Polishpowieściopisarzkrytykpostaćpublikacja
Romanianromanciercriticcaracterpublicare
Russianроманисткритикперсонажпубликация
Serbianроманописацкритичаркарактерпубликација
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Episode 141 – Artists and Literature Interactive Activities

Episode 141 – Artists and Literature PDF downloadable activities

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