In this Vocabulary Builder episode, you will learn the words: abominable, bumbling, consequence, delude, dole, engulf, foil, formulate, initiative, memento, nonconformist, null and void, panorama, posterity, pry, refurbish, resourceful, rigorous, subsequent, and unerring. You will check your understanding through the interactive activities on Quizlet, the PDF downloadable worksheet, and the interactive quiz. All available in this post.
Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.
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[00:01:03] Continue. Welcome to a new vocabulary builder episode from English plus podcast. And this is vocabulary builder 11. So that means we have 10 other vocabulary builders for you to check out. If you want to go back to the previous episodes as usual today, we’re going to learn 20 new words. And we will learn these words in context.
[00:01:29] And beyond that you will, I have exercises, downloadable PDFs, and a quiz to check your understanding of the words. After you listened to this episode, you can find the links you need in the description. And now without further ado, let’s start with our first six words that we’re going to figure out meaning of in a text about Annie Smith pick.
[00:01:50] Now not many of you might know who Annie Smith Beck is. But after this text, I’m sure you’re going to check her out on Google and you’re going to search for her because she is a phenomenal woman. Annie Smith Beck was a mountain climber and she had incredible feats throughout her life. Now let’s get to know her a little bit better.
[00:02:10] Mountain climbing has always been a rigorous activity even without today’s high-tech gear. So imagine how rare it was when Annie Smith Beck climbed Mount Shasta in California in 1888, Peck became interested in mountain climbing when she first saw the Swiss Alps. Once she made that first climb in California.
[00:02:34] And so the marvelous Panorama from the top, she was hooked for life. Always a nonconformist Peck refuse to let the days common prejudices against women keep her from her lofty goals. Born in 1850, she graduated from the university of Michigan with honors pursuing her interesting Greek and the classics.
[00:02:58] She subsequently went on to study at the American school of classical studies in Athens, Greece, and was the school’s first female student. She worked as a teacher writer and scholar, but it is as a mountain climber that posterity remembers her when she climbed Mount or Reserva in Mexico in 1897, Annie Smith’s Peck became the first woman in the Americas to climb a mountain over 18,000 feet high.
[00:03:29] By 1900, she had climbed 20 major mountains. Eight years later, she became the first person, man, or woman to climb the North peak of Mount water scam in Peru it’s summit at 21,812 feet. Mark, the highest point ever reached in the Western hemisphere as a consequence of her accomplishments, the North peak of the mountain was renamed in her honor.
[00:03:57] Cumbrae Andrea Smith. This spirited woman never let age hold her back at 61, Peck became the first person to climb peruse mountain Cora Poona at the top, she planted a flag that said votes for women. Peck climbed her last mountain in New Hampshire when she was 82, her death, three years later, Mark the end of a long and remarkable life.
[00:04:22] What a woman, this woman was a living legend. However, this episode, unfortunately, is not to talk about Annie Smith Peck, but I highly encourage you to go search for Annie Smith Peck and learn about the great feeds she did, especially in her age. Her age was so different from today, but that didn’t matter for her.
[00:04:44] Anyway, she was a nonconformist, which is one of the words we’re going to learn about today. But first let’s start with the very first word we would like to focus on in today’s episode. The word is rigorous. R I G O R O U S. Yes. Rigorous in the text. We said mountain climbing has always been a rigorous activity.
[00:05:08] Now, what do we mean by rigorous? Rigorous is an adjective. No a test system or procedure that is rigorous is very thorough and strict. Like when you say the selection process is based on rigorous tests of competence and experience. Synonyms. Like when we say strict, hard firm and demanding, and rigorously is the advert from rigorous.
[00:05:33] Now we can use rigorous for people as well. To describe people. We say someone is rigorous, and if someone is rigorous in the way that they do something, they are very careful and thorough. For example, he’s rigorous in his control of expenditure. And synonyms for rigorous when we use it to describe people, are the words thorough, meticulous, painstaking, or scrupulous.
[00:06:01] So that was our first word. The second word is Panorama. Now in the text, we said once she made that first climb in California. And so the marvelous Panorama from the top, she was hooked for life. So what is this Panorama that she sold from the top of the mountain? Now Panorama is spelled P a N O R a M a and it is accountable.
[00:06:27] Now a Panorama is a view in which you can see a long way over a wide area of land, usually because you are on high ground. Like when you said here, when she saw the marvelous Panorama from the top of the mountain, she is obviously on high ground. The synonyms for Panorama are the world’s view. Prospect scenery or Vista or Panorama can also be used in a different meaning.
[00:06:54] A Panorama is a broad view of a state of affairs or of a constantly changing series of events. Like when we say the play presents a Panorama of the history of communism. So it’s not always just a view or just some view you can see with your eyes. It can be a view of a state of affairs as well. And the synonyms for this meaning are the words survey perspective or overview.
[00:07:22] So that was our second word. Let’s move on to the word I just told you about non-conformist. We said in the text, always a nonconformist Peck refuse to let the day’s common prejudices against women. Keep her from her lofty goals. So what is the meaning of the word non-conformist. Are we talking about a person who accepts the status quo and never tries to change things or just the opposite, but actually it’s just the opposite.
[00:07:51] But first non-conformist is spelled N O N C O N F O R M I S T non-conformist. And it’s an adjective. If you say that someone’s way of life or opinions are non-conformist you mean that they are different from them? Those of most people, how can we say their views are conformist and their political opinions are extreme synonyms for non-conformist?
[00:08:20] Are the words dissenting or dissident? Heterodox or schismatic and a nonconformist is someone who is nonconforming, so we can use it as well as a noun. I say he is a nonconformist or as an adjective. Now, just a quick fact about the word, the word started in Britain, and it was first used to talk about the and churches that broke away from the church of England back in the 16 hundreds.
[00:08:51] Now let’s move to the next word subsequently. In the text, we talked about her studies and after she graduated from the university of Michigan with honors pursuing her interest in Greek and the classic, she subsequently went on to study at the American school of classical studies in Athens, Greece. So we’re talking about something that shows sequence of events, something that happens in something that happens after it, subsequent to it.
[00:09:19] So what is the meaning of subsequent subsequently? The way we use it here as the adverb of subsequent subsequent is spelled S U B S E Q U E N T. Subsequent. And it’s an adjective you use subsequent to describe something that happened or existed after the time or event that has just been referred to.
[00:09:44] For example, we say the increase of population in subsequent years in the years that came after, or we say those concerns were overshadowed by subs sequence events by the events that happened. So this is just one word and I have to say here, subsequent is a formal word, expect to hear it in regular conversations, but it is a very useful word for formal contexts and writing.
[00:10:12] And obviously the way we used it as an adverb subsequently now synonyms for subsequent are the words following later, succeeding or after. And now for our next word, posterity posterity is spelled B O S T E R I T Y. Posterity in our text. We used it. When we talked about Annie’s legacy, we said that she worked as a teacher writer and scholar, but it is as a mountain climber that posterity remembers her.
[00:10:46] So we’re talking about posterity it’s about people, but which people posterity is an uncountable. Now you can refer to every one who will be alive in the future. As posterity and posterity is another formal word. So we use it mostly informal conversations or in writing, for example, we say a photographer recorded the scene for posterity for the future generations.
[00:11:13] For the succeeding generations or simply for the future. And now for our next word consequence and the text, we said that she climbed Mount water scan in Peru it’s summit at 21,812 feet. Mark. The highest point ever reached in the Western hemisphere as a consequence of her accomplishments. The North peak of the mountain was renamed in her honor Smith.
[00:11:40] So they named the mountain peak after her as a consequence. So what is the meaning of consequence? Well, first consequence is spelled C O N S E Q U E N C E. Consequence. Consequence is accountable now. The consequences of something, are the results or effects of it, for example? Well, we say her lawyer said she understood the consequences of her and was prepared to go to jail or, or an economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security.
[00:12:20] So we can say the consequences of something like the consequences of her actions, or we can say consequences for. Something like when we say the crisis or the economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security. Now, when we talk about consequence, we have important phrases. We need to know with consequence.
[00:12:41] Like when we say in consequence or as a consequence, So if one thing happens and then another thing happens in consequence or as a consequence, the second thing happens as a result of the first. So the meaning is not far from what we talked about. Right. But what I’m focusing on here is the expression itself.
[00:13:02] We say in consequence, or as a consequence, And we have another expression. When we say of consequence, like when we say some thing or someone of consequence and something, or someone of consequence is important or valuable, if something or someone is of no consequence or of little consequence, they are not important or valuable.
[00:13:27] For example, as an overseer, he suddenly found himself a person of consequence. An important person. So here we can see the meaning is a little bit different and one last expression with consequence, and that is to take the consequences or face the consequences. If you tell someone that they must take the consequences or face the consequences, warn them, that something unplug as in will happen to them.
[00:13:57] If they do not stop behaving in a particular way. For example, these pilots must now face the consequences of their actions and be brought to trial. Because they did something wrong or if climate changes continue, we will for the consequences. So suffer is another verb we can use with consequence. So that was about the six words I wanted to highlight in this text, but we still have 14 words and we will have sentences where we’re going to highlight these words and talk about their meaning.
[00:14:32] So stay with me. Our first word is abominable a, B O M I N a B L E. Unfortunately, there are many abominable ideas circulating on the internet. Now here. Yes. The example is a little bit generic. I have to say, but if you think about it, whenever we talk about those ideas that are circulating on the internet or talking about the majority of the negative ones of the bad ones, unfortunately, the internet is a great invention, but unfortunately that also paved the way for some abominable ideas that keep spreading every day.
[00:15:14] So abominable obviously is a negative word. Something that is abominable is very unpleasant or bad. For example, the president described the killings as an abominable crime as a very unpleasant or bad and synonyms for abominable are the words detestable, shocking, terrible, or offensive. Our next word is bumbling.
[00:15:41] Bumbling is spelled B U M B L I N G. The bumbling burglars were so inept that they actually left some of their own money at the home. They were planning to Rob, or we can say the old cartoon character, mr. Magoo was well known for his bumbling. So when we talked about the bumbling burglars, And when you talk about this old cartoon character for being clumsy all the time, that is the meaning of bumbling.
[00:16:12] If you describe a person or their behavior as bumbling, you mean that they behave in a confused, this organized way, making mistakes and usually not achieving anything. Bumbling behavior like those burglars, they, they left some of their own money at the home. We’re planning to Rob. I mean, how clumsy can it get?
[00:16:33] How awkward can it get? And awkward is one synonym for bumbling as clumsy. And blundering or bungling. And now for our next word, delude dilute is spelled D E L U D E. Let’s take a look at this example we have here, don’t delude yourself into thinking that you will become a famous concert pianist, just because you played one song at the school’s talent show.
[00:17:02] Well, this is a very negative thing to say because you’re definitely not encouraging this person to pursue his or her dreams of becoming a concert pianist, but here as negative as it is, what is the meaning of dilute? Dilute is spelled D E L U D E delude. In our example, we said, don’t delude yourself into thinking that you will become a famous concert pianist.
[00:17:27] Do you think the person saying that believes the other person is going to be a concert pianist or at least XE trying to encourage that person? No, we just said it is negative. If you delude yourself, you let yourself believe that something is true, even though it is not true. It is like fooling yourself, deceiving yourself, tricking yourself.
[00:17:51] Or normally we say, don’t kid yourself. Like when we say, are you kidding? So the example here, we said, don’t delude yourself. Don’t fool yourself. And we haven’t interesting expression here to dilute someone into thinking. Something means to make them believe what is not true. Like when you say television diluted, moves you into thinking you have experienced reality when you haven’t.
[00:18:15] And that is a very common problem. Maybe we will talk about it one day in one of our episodes, but television does that after you watch something, especially reality, TV or documentaries, et cetera. It is very useful and it is very good and entertaining of course, but don’t delude yourself into thinking that just because you watched it on TV, you actually lived it.
[00:18:40] You did not, you know about it. That’s good, but you don’t have firsthand experience, which is the most important thing you should have in life, especially in the things that you are interested in the most, or maybe your career or passions. Anyway, that was about delude. And now we will move to the next word.
[00:18:58] Bill D O L E Dole. Let’s take a look at this example. Let’s see. Dole outs, craps of food to the hungry dogs. Or the homeless people lined up to receive their weekly Dole at the shelter. So what is the meaning of Dole? Here can be a verb and it means to give out in small amounts. And we’re talking about something that is regularly given by the government to people who are unemployed that is adult.
[00:19:26] And that is usually a word we use British English in America. In this sense, they use it as welfare, w E L F a R E welfare. And we usually say someone is on the Dole. So someone who is on the Dole is registered as unemployed and receives money from the government in the United States. We say on welfare, but it can also be the noun.
[00:19:51] And that is to mean money, food or other necessities given us charity and usually in small portions. So that was dope now for our next word in golf. And golf is spelled E N G U L F. Let’s take a look at this example, the truck was engulfed in flames after its fuel tank exploded. Now the fuel tank exploded and the truck was engulfed in flames.
[00:20:19] So do you think that the flames were coming from one direction or they were just in one place? The tank exploded. So the flames were everywhere around this truck. Does that will bring you closer to the meaning of in golf and golf is a verb. And if one thing engulfs another, it completely covers or hides it often in a sudden and unexpected way.
[00:20:45] Like what we just said here about the truck, or it could be used to talk about feelings or emotions, if a feeling or emotion in goals, you, you are strongly affected by it. How can we say overwhelmed or overcome crush or observed? I was observed I was overcome or I was overwhelmed. And now for our next one, the word foil F O I L foil, we hope that good police work will foil the criminals plot.
[00:21:15] I’ll use foil here as a verb. And if you foil someone’s plan or attempt to do something, for example, to commit a crime, you succeed in stopping them from doing what they want. Like what we just said here, we hope that good police work will foil the criminals plot. We’ll stop the plot before it happens, obviously, but for can also have other meanings.
[00:21:38] Foil can be an uncountable noun and it. Foil consists of sheets of metal, as thin as paper. And it is used to wrap food in like aluminum foil, the famous kind of foil aluminum foil, and foil can also have a different meaning. If you refer to one thing or person as a foil for another, you approve of the fact that they contrast with each other and go well together often in a way that makes the second thing or person seemed better.
[00:22:07] Or less harmful, like when we say he thought of her serenity as a foil for his intemperance or a cold beer is the perfect foil for a Curry. So it’s like we say the compliment or the relief, or just, we said the contrast. And finally foil can be a thin light sword used in fencing, which has a button on its tip to prevent injury, obviously, because it’s just a sport.
[00:22:33] So that was about foil. Let’s move on to the next word, formulate and formulate spelled F O R M U L a T E. Formulate now, in our example, here we have, the town board is working to formulate a more economical energy policy for its citizens. They want to formulate a policy. So what is the meaning of formulate here?
[00:22:56] If you formulate something such as a plan or proposal, you invent it, thinking about the details carefully. And you can use formulate for also thoughts, opinions, or ideas. If you formulate a thought opinion or idea you express it or describe it using particular words. So that was formulate. Our next word is initiative, and that’s a very nice word.
[00:23:23] It’s very nice to have people take the initiative in their lives. Let’s take a look at our example, dad was proud that I took the initiative to rake the leaves without being asked. He didn’t ask me to do it, but I did it anyway. I took the initiative. So what is the meaning of initiative, which is spelled I N I T I a T I V E initiative.
[00:23:47] So here, in our example, I took the initiative. And if you take initiative, you have the ability to decide what to do next, or to do it without needing other people, to tell you what to do. And that is exactly what I did. And that’s why dad was proud because I did it on my own without being asked. And now for our next word memento, M E M E N T O.
[00:24:14] This gap is a momentum of our trip this past summer. So what is the meaning of a memento? A memento is an object, which you keep because it reminds you of a person or a special occasion. So it’s a memento, like a souvenir trophy, Memorial token, or keepsake. And now let’s move on to our next word now and void.
[00:24:37] This contract becomes null and void at noon tomorrow. If an agreement, a declaration or the result of an election is null and void, it is not legally valid. Avoid of course are not one word. There are three words now, N U L L. And void and a and D V O I D void Nolan void. Now the synonyms are the words invalid, useless, void worthless.
[00:25:08] So that was our word, null and void. And now for our next word, PRI. P R Y PRI. Now the example we have, we can use this tool to pry the lid off a can of paint. If you price something open or pried away from a surface, you force it open or away from a surface, like the example we just use here, but probably can also be used for other meanings as well.
[00:25:34] And other interesting meanings if someone prize. They try to find out about someone else’s private affairs or look at their personal possessions. For example, we do not want people prying into our affairs. It’s none of their business like to interfere or poke peer or be inquisitive. And in a closer sense to that, meaning if you price something such as information out of someone, you pursue weighed them to tell you, although they may be very unwilling to.
[00:26:06] For example, they impersonated reporters to pry personal records from phone companies. So that was pride. What about our next word? Refurbish refurbishes spelt R E F U R B I S H refurbish. Now let’s take a look at the example we have here every five years, the hotel refurbishes the decor of its elegant lobby.
[00:26:33] So to refurbish, a building or room means to clean it, decorate it and make it more attractive or better equipped. Like the hotel lobby here, they refurbished the lobby every five years and synonyms for refurbish are the words, remodel, renew, or spruce up. And now for our next word, resources, resourceful is spelled R E S O U R C E F U L.
[00:27:02] Resourceful. Let’s take a look at the example here. Our resourceful guide will know how to handle any questions or surprises that come up on the tour, a resourceful guide. So someone who is resourceful is good at finding ways of dealing with problems like a guide when he or she faces an unexpected question or an unexpected problem, and synonyms are the words ingenious, able, bright, or talented.
[00:27:30] And now for our last word for today’s episode, honoring, honoring is spelled U and E R R I N G honoring. Let’s take a look at the example. Even a pilot with honoring judgment can be surprised by sudden changes in the weather. So what do we mean by honoring here? Do we use this to describe somebody who makes a lot of mistakes or a clumsy person, like the word bumbling we use at the beginning of the episode?
[00:28:00] Or is it just the opposite? If you decide someone’s judgment or ability as unnerving, you mean that they are always correct and never mistaken, like the judgment of our pilot. In the example here, synonyms are the words accurate? Sure. Certain or perfect. So these were our 20 new words for this week. I hope you like the words I chose for you for this week.
[00:28:26] Don’t forget that you can find the transcript of this episode, along with a downloadable PDF and the quiz in the link you can find in the description of this episode, take the link, practice the words don’t just listen to this episode because by practicing these words, you will make these words a permanent addition to your active vocabulary bank. [00:28:47] This is Danny your host. Thank you very much for listening to today’s episode. I will see you next time.