In this Vocabulary Builder episode, you will learn the words: abduct, ambiguous, balk, compact, confer, earmark, frigid, implement, incalculable, indisputable, intensive, maneuver, sabotage, scant, stealthy, strapping, strident, thrive, titanic, and valiant.
|abduct||(v.) to kidnap, carry off by force|
|ambiguous||(adj.) not clear; having two or more possible meanings|
|balk||(v.) to stop short and refuse to go on; to refuse abruptly; to prevent from happening; (n.) (in baseball) an illegal motion made by a pitcher|
|compact||(adj.) closely and firmly packed together; small; (v.) to squeeze together; (n.) an agreement between parties; a small case containing a mirror and face powder; a small car|
|confer||(v.) to consult, talk over, exchange opinions; to present as a gift, favor, or honor|
|earmark||(v.) to set aside for a special purpose; to mark an animal’s ear for identification; (n.) an identifying mark or feature|
|frigid||(adj.) extremely cold; lacking in warmth or feeling|
|implement||(n.) an instrument, tool; (v.) to put into effect|
|incalculable||(adj.) too great to be counted; unpredictable, uncertain|
|indisputable||(adj.) beyond question or argument, definitely true|
|intensive||(adj.) thorough, deep; showing great effort; concentrated|
|maneuver||(n.) a planned movement; a skillful plan; a scheme; (v.) to perform or carry out such a planned movement|
|sabotage||(n.) an action taken to destroy something or to prevent it from working properly; (v.) to take such destructive action|
|scant||(adj.) not enough; barely enough; marked by a small or insufficient amount|
|stealthy||(adj.) done in a way so as not to be seen or observed; sneaky, underhanded|
|strapping||(adj.) tall, strong, and healthy|
|strident||(adj.) harsh, shrill; unpleasant sounding|
|thrive||(v.) to grow vigorously; to grow in wealth and possessions|
|titanic||(adj.) of enormous size, strength, power, or scope|
|valiant||(adj) possessing or acting with bravery or boldness|
Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.
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Welcome to a new episode of vocabulary builder. Today we’re going to learn six new words from a story about Navajo Code Talkers. And those six words are intensive earmark scant implement valiant and bulk. So without further ado, let’s get to the story and then we will talk about the words
in war survival may depend on an army’s ability to pass data in secret
armies make intensive efforts to break each other’s communication codes. Each wants to uncover what its enemy plans to do. During World War Two. No intelligence group was more valuable to American troops in the South Pacific than the Navajo Code Talkers. The Navajo Code Talkers were a remarkable group of Navajo soldiers who used their native language to create an unbreakable code. The Navajo language has many earmarks of a successful code. It is unwritten, complicated, and known only by a scant number of non Navajos. The Japanese could never crack it. During the terrible Battle of uwajima. Six Navajo Code Talkers sent and received 800 vital messages without a single error. Philip Johnston got the idea of using
The Navajo language for a code in 1941. He had grown up among the Navajo and spoke their language fluently. He believed that any code based on Navajo would be secure. After months of testing and training, the first group of 29 Navajo Code Talkers implemented their distinctive system. They matched Navajo words to common military terms. For example, the Navajo word for hummingbirds stood for fighter plane, iron fish men submarine turtle men tank, they also created a secondary code in which Navajo words stood for English letters. co talkers, could then spell specific words by stringing words together. Some people found it odd that Native Americans made such valiant efforts to help a nation that had a history of harming them. Yet Navajo Code Talkers never bought that the chance to serve the United States.
dates. Their code remains one of the few in all of military history that was never broken. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan declared August the 14th as Navajo Code Talkers day to honor the contributions of these brave soldiers. So our story was about the Navajo Code Talkers, who use their unique language to create an unbreakable code that was of great use, especially in the Second World War. But for our purposes, we’re going to focus on six words, and let’s start right away with the very first word intensive. Now, in the story, we have armies make intensive efforts to break each other’s communication codes. When we talk about efforts. We know that there is a lot of work when we talk about intensive efforts. That’s a little bit more than just doing something
So, intensive activity involves concentrating a lot of effort or people on one particular task in order to try to achieve a great deal in a short time. So, that is the intensive, a concentrated effort, a thorough effort and exhaustive effort and intensive is spelled i n t e n s IV intensive. So remember when we talk about intensive we’re talking about concentrated. We use that a lot with training programs. For example, we say each counsellor undergoes an intensive training program before beginning work. So that was our first word. What about our second word, earmark? Now in the story we said the Navajo language has many earmarks of a successful code. So what are the earmarks or what is an earmark? First of all, earmark is spelled e AR
Ma rk and when we talk about earmark, we can use it as a verb and as a noun. Now as a noun here when we said, the Navajo language has many earmarks, we’re talking about any distinguishing marks or characteristics. But I have to mention the other use where we use earmark as a verb. And that is when we earmark resources if resources such as money are earmarked for a particular purpose, they are reserved for that purpose. Let’s say for example, the extra money in the budget is being earmarked for new projects. So we can’t use that for any other thing. This is reserved for new projects. And this is actually a common use for earmark and a useful one. So that was our second word, earmark. How about our third word scant? Now the story we continued and we talked about the Navajo language. We said it
has many earmarks of a successful code it is unwritten, complicated, and known only by a scant number of non Navajos. So, it is not like when we say French should German, even Chinese and Japanese, they may be difficult, but they are known to many people, even Chinese, Japanese or Arabic, which might be difficult languages. They are known by many people but not the language of the Navajo people. They are known only by a scant number of non Navajos. So, what is the meaning of scant which is spelled SC AMT so scant, we’re not talking about many obviously now definitely the meaning here is not to say that it is known by a lot of people by scan number. So we’re talking about very few. Now we use scanned as an adjective to indicate that there is very little of something or not as much as something as they
should be, we use scan to talk about number two emphasize how small the number is. And now let’s move to the next word implement. Now in our story we said, After months of testing and training, the first group of 29 Navajo Code Talkers implemented their distinctive system. So when we implement a system, what does that mean? Obviously, we’re using it here as a verb and implement is spelled Im p, l, e, m, e and t. So, if you implement something such as a plan, you ensure that what has been planned is done. So here, the code talkers made sure that the plan is done. So that is to implement a plan. It’s not enough to plan the plan or to think of a plan. If you think of a plan or you come up with a plan. That’s great. It’s better than no plan, but more importantly, you have to read
realize this plan you have to make sure it is done. So that is to implement something. And now for our next word valliant. And that is VALIA nt valiant. Now, in our story, we said some people found it odd that Native Americans made such valiant efforts to help a nation that had a history of harming them. Now, we’re talking about efforts we use the word valiant to describe efforts now after the story, and we talked about how unique that is, how clever that is, and maybe how brave that is. So Which do you think is closer to the meaning of valiant? We’re not talking about a bad effort here. We’re talking about a very positive adjective we can use for efforts like we said here, or for many other words, well, a valiant action is very brave and determined, though it may lead to failure or defeat. So it might be
be something that when we talk about heroism, when we talk about bold actions that might not always be successful, but they are brave, heroic all the time. So valiant is just like saying brave, heroic, courageous or bold. And by the way, Valiant is spelled VALI, A and T. So now let’s move to our last word for this episode, and that is bolc. Or sometimes it is pronounced just balk without bl. But let’s stick to bog it’s easier for pronunciation. In our story we said yet Navajo Code Talkers never balked at the chance to serve the United States. Now, after we said that, they made such valiant efforts to help the nation with a history of harming them yet Navajo Code Talkers never bolt at the chance to serve the United States. So we’re talking about valiant we’re talking about bravery here, then
Never balked. So do you think that they kind of coward or they didn’t want to do something? Well, if you balk at something, you definitely do not want to do it or let it happen. Actually, it is something that tells you that you don’t want to do something and you kind of fight against it. You don’t want to do it. You recoil you resist, you hesitate, or you even dodge the whole thing. And that’s why we said here, they never balked at the chance to serve the United States. So we’re just saying that they never did this. They never balked. And bolt by the way is spelled ba lk. That will bring us to the last word of our story about the brave Navajo Code Talkers and the very unique system which might not be as sophisticated as let’s say the Enigma coding system. But because the Navajo is a unique language and as we say
It is known by just to scan number of people around the globe that from the non Navajos, it made it very successful and it made it one of the few codes that was never broken. So that was about today’s episode. If you would like to learn more words, use the link I will provide in the description of this episode, you will find more words in addition to the six words we learned about in this episode on my website, and you will also find a link to the interactive activities on Quizlet. You will find a link to the PDF downloadable worksheet that you can use to practice the words and make the vocabulary you learn a permanent part of your active vocabulary bank. And I can’t stress enough that practice is the only way. It’s not enough to listen to me. It’s not enough to think that you know the word. You have to practice the words and you have to use the words in your writing.
And speaking this is Danny your host. Thank you very much for listening to another episode from English plus podcast. I will see you next time.