|In Vocabulary Builder 18 | Life on the Range episode, you will learn the words: available, cater, customary, dissuade, entrepreneur, firebrand, hazard, homicide, indifference, indignant, indispensable, lubricate, mutual, pelt, plague, poised, regime, retard, transparent, and unscathed.|
|available||(adj.) ready for use, at hand|
|cater||(v.) to satisfy the needs of, try to make things easy and pleasant; to supply food and service|
|customary||(adj.) usual, expected, routine|
|dissuade||(v.) to persuade not to do something|
|entrepreneur||(n.) A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business|
|firebrand||(n.) a piece of burning wood; a troublemaker; an extremely energetic or emotional person|
|hazard||(n.) risk, peril; (v.) to expose to danger or harm; to gamble|
|homicide||(n.) the killing of one person by another|
|indifference||(n.) a lack of interest or concern|
|indignant||(adj.) filled with resentment or anger over something unjust, unworthy, or mean|
|indispensable||(adj.) absolutely necessary, not to be neglected|
|lubricate||(v.) to apply oil or grease; to make smooth, slippery, or easier to use|
|mutual||(adj.) shared, felt, or shown equally by two or more|
|pelt||(v.) to throw a stream of things; to strike successively; to hurry|
|plague||(n.) an easily spread disease causing a large number of deaths; a widespread evil; (v.) to annoy or bother|
|poised||(adj., part.) balanced, suspended; calm, controlled; ready for action|
|regime||(n.) a government in power; a form or system of rule or management; a period of rule|
|retard||(v.) to make slow, delay, hold back|
|transparent||(adj.) allowing light to pass through; easily recognized or understood; easily seen through or detected|
|unscathed||(adj.) wholly unharmed, not injured|
Disclaimer: I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and this problem will be solved. However, the service is pretty good and the transcript will prove to be almost perfect.
Welcome to a new episode from English plus podcast. Today, we have vocabulary builder, and we will talk about life on the range. But before we talk about our little story and the words we’re going to learn from the story. You will find in the description, in addition to the regular stuff, that transcript and to the exercises, the interactive activities, et cetera, you will find a link to my online learning page on my website.
[00:00:34] And there you will find special discounts on my online courses. That will last for four days only. So you’d better act fast. I’m talking about 90 to 95% discounts on my six courses on Udemy. We have vocabulary builder courses, common mistakes. We have actual vocabulary courses for people’s appearance and character.
[00:00:55] And also for the ones interested in Microsoft word, there is a course that will teach you how to create long documents in word, like a professional. And there is another course on PowerPoint, which will teach you everything you need to know about PowerPoint in a project based format. So if you’re interested, follow the link and take advantage of the discount.
[00:01:16] That’s. Only going to last for four days. So you’d better hurry up. So now without do, let’s get back to our vocabulary builder today, as I said, we’re going to talk about life on the range. So let’s hear the story. Life on the range. Although Cowboys have been portrayed as romantic figures in American folklore and film in reality, their life on the trail was anything but romantic about 1865 to 1890 Cowboys drove approximately 10 million head of cattle from ranches in Southern Texas to far away Northern locations.
[00:02:00] Where the Hertz went changed during that period. At first, the drive supplied cattle to Fords, mining downs and reservations later with the coming of the railroad. The destinations were railroad towns in Kansas or Nebraska, where the cattle were sold for beef to Eastern buyers. Regardless of the destination, the trip was dangerous and exhausting.
[00:02:28] In addition to stampedes Cowboys encountered many other hazards on the drive, along with dangerous, almost anything could retard the long journey. If the raging rivers they had to cross didn’t slow the Cowboys down. Then the weather would Cowboys were routinely pelted by hail and plagued by dust storms.
[00:02:52] They were also often sickened by the food that was available to them. The majority of the Cowboys who drove cattle were Texans. Some were ex Confederate soldiers. Others were former slaves. Most were young, all were small, their size made it easier for the horses to carry them over long distances. Cowboys also had something else in common, all work long hours for very low pay.
[00:03:23] For up to four months at a time before resting or returning home only teamwork got them through the ordeal Cowboys soon learned that cattle could be managed most effectively in herds of about 2,500 head with eight to 12 Cowboys for each herd. Cattle drivers work together to hurt Roundup watch and brand the cattle.
[00:03:48] This teamwork was indispensable to the success of any cattle drive. All right. So that was our story about life on the range. And now let’s get to the words that we want to focus on today. We have six words to talk about from the story. We’ll start right away with a very first word hazard. And the story we said, in addition to stampedes, Cowboys encountered many other hazards on the drive while we’re talking about the trip was dangerous.
[00:04:20] The trip was exhausting. We’re talking about stampedes that are very dangerous and life threatening, and we have this word other hazards on the drive. So what is a hazard, which is spelled by the way, H a Zed, a R D. So, what is hazard hazard is something which could be dangerous to you, your health or safety, or your plans or reputation.
[00:04:46] The hazard does not always refer to physical danger. It can be dangerous to many aspects of your life. So that was about hazard. Let’s take a look at the second word we have today, along with dangerous, almost anything could retard the long journey. We talked about raging rivers. We talked about whether that could slow down the journey.
[00:05:10] Or as we said here, retard, R E T a R D. Retard, if something retards a process or the development of something, it makes it happen more slowly. So it slows down. We can say slows down of course, but retard is a fancy word. Actually, it’s a formal word that you can use to talk about this specific meaning. And now let’s move to the next word pelt.
[00:05:41] In the story. We said Cowboys were routinely pelted by hail and plagued by dust storms. When we were talking about it, the dangers and the things that load them down or retarded their journey. So pelt here, we talking about, they were pelted by hail. So what is the meaning of pelt, which is by the way, spelled.
[00:06:04] P E L T. Now, as you can notice, we used Peltier as a verb because pay attention Peled as announced is a completely different thing that pelt of an animal is its skin. Which can be used to make clothing or rugs. That’s the pelt the same word. Exactly the same word, but as a verb, it’s something completely different.
[00:06:24] If you belt someone with things, you throw things at them. So here they were pelted by hail. Obviously no one was throwing things at them, but. That is the expression. They were pelted by maybe criticism, sometimes maybe a rotten tomatoes or hail in this context. And in the very same sentence, we also talked about plagued by dust storms.
[00:06:49] Now plague is our very next word and it is spelled P L a G U E. So this might be a little bit difficult to spell, so pay attention to it. P L a G U E plague. Now, please, league is a very famous now at play is a very infectious disease. That’s spread quickly and killed large numbers of people. Like when we say a color, a plague or the bubonic plague and others, but plague here again is used as a verb.
[00:07:24] We said they were routinely pelted by hail and played by dust storm. So when we use plague as a verb, what do we mean by that? If you are plagued by unpleasant things, they continually cause you a lot of trouble or suffering. So that is the meaning of plague. If you are plagued by somebody and we usually use it in passive voice, he was plagued by something.
[00:07:51] She was plague by something, et cetera. And here we come to our very next word. And we said they were pelted by and plagued by dust storms. They were also often sickened by the food that was available to them. When we say something is available, what does that mean? Well, obviously available is an adjective and if something you want or need is available, you can find it or obtain it.
[00:08:15] You can get it. And the food that was available to them. He, we’re not talking about it in a positive way. We’re talking about it in a kind of a negative way. We said the, the food available for them was bad. That’s what we’re trying to say. So sometimes what’s available is good. Sometimes what’s available is bad, but what’s available is the thing that you can get, or you can find that’s it.
[00:08:39] You can’t find other things. These are the things, these are the tools available make use of them. So that is the meaning of available and available. It’s spelled a V a I L a B L E. Available. And now we come to a very last word and that is indispensable and that is a long word, but it’s a very interesting word.
[00:09:02] Now first, let’s see how we used it in our story. We said that cattle drivers work together to herd Roundup watch and brand the cattle. The teamwork was indispensable to the success of any cattle drive. So after we say this expression, do you think that cattle drive would be successful without the teamwork?
[00:09:26] Obviously, after what we learned in the story and common sense tells us that no, It is essential. It is the key to success. So that brings us closer to the meaning of the word indispensable. Indispensable is spelled I N D I S P E N S a B L E. Indispensable. And if you say that someone or something is indispensable, you mean that they are absolutely essential and other people or things cannot function without them.
[00:09:59] So that is our word indispensable. And that was all the words that I wanted to share with you today. But remember, we have 14 more words waiting for you in the link. You can find the description and you can practice all these new words. Using the interactive activities we have on Quizzlet. We also have the downloadable PDF with crossword puzzles, word searches, spelling exercises, et cetera.
[00:10:24] And of course, a multiple choice quiz. So you can use, use all that to expand your vocabulary even more. And by practicing the words, you will make them part of your active vocabulary bank, which is very important. The words you use, not only the words you understand. And remember you can find the transcript of this episode in the same link.
[00:10:44] I’m going to leave in the description and don’t forget to check the online learning page where you can get your special discounts. This is your host, Danny. Thank you very much for listening to another episode from English plus podcast. I will see you next time.